Pharmacy Shelving Michigan
Michigan (pronounced [ˈmɪʃɪɡən]) is a Midwestern state of the United , located in the east north central portion of the country. It was named after Lake Michigan, the word 'Michigan' itself being a French derivative of the Ojibwe misshikama (read "mish-ih-GAH-muh"), meaning "big lake" (compare kitchikama, meaning "Great Lake" - pronounced "gitch-ih-GAH-ma," or "Gitchee-Gumee" as rendered by Longfellow).
Bounded by four of the five Great Lakes, plus Lake Saint Clair, Michigan has the longest freshwater shoreline in the United , the longest total shoreline after Alaska (including island shorelines), and more recreational boats than any other state in the union. A person in Michigan is never more than 85 miles (137 km) from open Great Lakes water and is never more than 6 miles (10 km) from a natural water source.
Michigan is the only bi-peninsular state. The Lower Peninsula of Michigan, to which the name Michigan was originally applied, is sometimes dubbed "the Mitten," owing to its shape. When asked where in Michigan one comes from, a resident of the Lower Peninsula may often point to the corresponding part of his or her hand. The Upper Peninsula (U.P.) is separated from the Lower Peninsula by the Straits of Mackinac, a five-mile channel that joins Lake Huron to Lake Michigan. The Upper Peninsula (whose residents are often called "Yoopers") is economically important for tourism and its natural resources.
The Upper and Lower Peninsulas are connected by the five-mile-long Mackinac Bridge, which is the third longest suspension bridge between anchorages in the world. The Great Lakes that border Michigan are Lake Erie, Lake Huron, Lake Michigan and Lake Superior. Michigan also abuts Lake Saint Clair, which is between Lake Erie and Lake Huron.
1.4 1900s to the present
2 Law and government
2.2 County government
2.3 Local government
6.1 Interstate highways
6.2 U.S. State Highways
7 Important cities and towns
8.1 Colleges and universities
8.2 Community colleges and technical schools
9 Professional sports teams
10.1 State symbols
11 See also
See also: Timeline of Michigan history
A Chippewa family, circa 1821Michigan was home to various Native Americans centuries before colonization by Europeans. When the first European explorers arrived, the most populous and influential tribes were Algonquian peoples - specifically, the Ottawa, the Anishnabe (called "Chippewa" in French, after their language, "Ojibwe"), and the Potawatomi. The Anishnabe were the most populous, estimated at between 25,000 and 35,000 within Michigan, where they were located throughout in the Upper Peninsula and northern Lower Peninsula. The Anishabe also lived in northern Ontario, northern Wisconsin, southern Manitoba, and northern and north-central Minnesota. The Ottawa lived primarily south of the Straits of Mackinac in northern and western Michigan, while the Potawatomi were primarily in the southwest. The three nations co-existed peacefully as part of a loose confederation called the Council of Three Fires. Other First Nations people in Michigan, in the south and east, were the Mascouten, the Miami, and the Wyandot, who are better known by their French name, "Huron".
Michigan was explored and settled by French voyageurs in the 17th century. The first Europeans to reach what later became Michigan were Étienne Brûlé's expedition in 1622. The first European settlement was made in 1641 on the site where Father (or Père, in French) Jacques Marquette established Sault Sainte-Marie in 1668.
Saint-Ignace was founded in 1671, and Marquette in 1675. Together with Sault Sainte-Marie, they are the three oldest cities in Michigan. "The Soo" (Sault Ste. Marie) has the distinction of being the oldest city in both Michigan and Ontario. It was split into two cities in 1818, a year after the U.S.-Canada boundary in the Great Lakes was finally established by the U.S.-UK Joint Border Commission.
In 1679, Lord La Salle of France directed the construction of the Griffin, the first European sailing vessel on the upper Great Lakes. That same year, La Salle built Fort Miami at present-day St. Joseph.
In 1701, French explorer and army officer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac founded Le Fort Ponchartrain du Détroit or “Fort Ponchartrain on-the-Strait” on the strait between Lakes St. Clair and Erie, known as the Detroit River. Cadillac had convinced King Louis XIV's chief minister, Louis Phélypeaux, Comte de Pontchartrain, that a permanent community there would strengthen French control over the upper Great Lakes and repel British aspirations.
The hundred soldiers and workers who accompanied Cadillac built a 200-square-foot palisade and named it Fort Pontchartrain. Cadillac's wife, Marie Thérèse, soon moved to Detroit, becoming one of the first white women to settle in the Michigan wilderness. The town quickly became a major fur-trading and shipping post. The “Église de Saint-Anne” or Church of Saint Ann, a stone church built in Detroit as its first permanent structure, still stands and remains an active congregation today, greatly dwarfed by the skyscrapers around it. At the same time, the French strengthened Fort Michilimackinac at the Straits of Mackinac in order to better control their lucrative fur-trading empire. By the mid-eighteenth century, the French had also occupied forts at present-day Niles and Sault Ste. Marie. However, most of the rest of the region remained unsettled by whites.
From 1660 to the end of French rule, Michigan (along with Wisconsin, eastern Minnesota, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Kentucky, Tennessee, Mississippi, Alabama, two-thirds of Georgia, and small parts of West Virginia, Pennsylvania, New York, Vermont, and Maine) was part of the Royal Province of New France, administered from the capital city of Québec. In 1759, following the Battle of the Plains of Abraham, in the French and Indian War (1754–1763), Québec City fell to British forces. Under the 1763 Treaty of Paris, Michigan and the rest of New France passed to Great Britain.
Detroit was an important British supply center during the American Revolutionary War, but most of the inhabitants - almost all of them - were either Aboriginal people or French Canadians. Because of imprecise cartography and unclear language defining the boundaries in the 1783 Treaty of Paris, the British retained control of Detroit and Michigan. When Quebec was split into Lower and Upper Canada in 1790, Michigan was part of Kent County, Upper Canada, and held its first democratic elections in August 1792, to send delegates to the new provincial parliament at Newark, (Now Niagara-on-the-Lake). Under terms negotiated in the 1794 Jay Treaty, Britain withdrew from Detroit and Michilimackinac in 1796. However, questions remained over the boundary for many years and the United did not have uncontested control of the Upper Peninsula and Drummond Island until 1818 and 1847, respectively.
Plan of the Town of Detroit and Fort Lernoult, 1792.
During the War of 1812, Michigan Territory (effectively consisting of Detroit and the surrounding area) was captured by the British and nominally returned to Upper Canada until the Treaty of Ghent, which implemented the policy of "Status Quo Ante Bellum" or "Just as Things Were Before the War." That meant Michigan stayed American, and the agreement to establish a joint U.S.-UK boundary commission also remained valid. Subsequent to the findings of that commission in 1817, control of the Upper Peninsula and of islands in the St. Clair River delta was transferred from Ontario to Michigan in 1818, and Drummond Island (to which the British had moved their Michilimackinac army base) was transferred in 1847.
The population grew slowly until the opening of the Erie Canal in 1825, which brought a large influx of settlers. By the 1830s, Michigan had some 80,000 residents, which was more than enough to apply for statehood. A state government was formed in 1836, although Congressional recognition of the state languished because of a boundary dispute with Ohio, with both sides claiming a 468 square mile (1,210 km²) strip of land that included the newly incorporated city of Toledo on Lake Erie and an area to the west then known as the "Great Black Swamp." The dispute came to be called the Toledo War, with Michigan and Ohio militia maneuvering in the area but never coming to blows. Ultimately, Congress awarded the "Toledo Strip" to Ohio, and Michigan, having received the western part of the Upper Peninsula as a concession, formally entered the Union on January 26, 1837.
Thought to be useless at the time, the Upper Peninsula was soon discovered to be a rich and important source of lumber, iron, and copper, which would become the state's most sought-after natural resources. Geologist Douglass Houghton and land surveyor William Austin Burt were among the first to document and discover many of these resources, which led to a nation-wide increase of interest in the state.
Henry Ford in the Quadricycle, 1905Michigan's economy underwent a massive change at the turn of the 20th century. The birth of the automotive industry, with Henry Ford's first plant in the Highland Park enclave of Detroit, marked the beginning of a new era in transportation. It was a development that not only transformed Detroit and Michigan, but permanently altered the socio-economic climate of the United and much of the world. Grand Rapids, the second-largest city in Michigan, is also a center of automotive manufacturing. Since 1838, the city has also been noted for its thriving furniture industry.
1900s to the present
Since the 1970's, Michigan's industrial base has eroded as the auto industry began to abandon the state's industrial parks in favor of less expensive labor found overseas and in the southern U.S. . Nevertheless, with more than 10 million residents, Michigan continues to grow and remains a large and influential state, ranking eighth in population among the 50 .
The Detroit metropolitan area in the southeast corner of the state remains the largest metropolitan area in Michigan (roughly 50% of the population resides there) and one of the 10 largest metro areas in the country. The Grand Rapids/ Holland/ Muskegon metro area on the west side of the state is the fastest growing metro area in the state presently, with over 1 million residents as of 2006.
Law and government
See also: List of Michigan Governors, List of United Senators from Michigan, and List of United Representatives from Michigan
Lansing is the state capital and is home to all three branches of state government. The Michigan State Capitol building hosts the executive and legislative branches. The chief executive is the Governor, currently Jennifer Granholm. The legislative branch consists of the bicameral Michigan Legislature, with a House of Representatives and Senate. The Supreme Court of Michigan sits with seven justices. The Constitution of Michigan of 1963 provides for voter initiative and referendum (Article II, § 9, defined as "the power to propose laws and to enact and reject laws, called the initiative, and the power to approve or reject laws enacted by the legislature, called the referendum. The power of initiative extends only to laws which the legislature may enact under this constitution").
Michigan's state universities are immune from control by the legislature, the governor and most aspects of the executive branch, and the cities in or near which they are located; but they are not immune from the authority of the courts. Some degree of political control is exercised as the legislature approves appropriations for the schools. Further, the governor appoints the board of trustees of most state universities with the advice and consent of the state Senate; only the trustees of the University of Michigan, Michigan State University, and Wayne State University are chosen in general elections.
Michigan was the first state in the Union to abolish the death penalty, in 1846. David G. Chardavoyne has suggested that the abolitionist movement in Michigan grew as a result of enmity towards the state's neighbor, Canada, which under British rule made public executions a regular practice.
As with other Rust Belt , the Republican Party dominated Michigan until the Great Depression. In 1912, Michigan was one of the few to support progressive third party candidate Theodore Roosevelt for President. In recent years, the state has leaned toward the Democratic Party in national elections. Michigan has supported Democrats in the last four presidential elections. In 2004, John Kerry carried the state over George W. Bush, winning Michigan's 17 electoral votes with 51.2% of the vote. Democrats have won each of the last three, and nine of the last ten, US Senate elections in Michigan. Republican strength is greatest in the western, northern, and rural parts of the state, especially in the Grand Rapids area. Democrats are strongest in the east, especially in Detroit, Ann Arbor, Flint, and Saginaw.
See also: List of Michigan county seats
Michigan's 83 countiesAs with nearly all U.S. (Alaska and Hawaii the notable exceptions), state government is decentralized among three tiers — statewide, county and township. Counties are administrative divisions of the state, and townships are administrative divisions of a county. Both of them exercise state government authority, localized to meet the particular needs of their jurisdictions, as provided by state law. There are 83 counties in Michigan.
Cities, state universities, and villages are vested with home rule powers of varying degrees. Home rule cities can generally do anything that is not prohibited by law. The fifteen state universities have broad power and can do anything, within the parameters of their status as educational institutions that is not prohibited by the state constitution. Villages, by contrast, have limited home rule, in that they are not completely autonomous from the county and township in which they are located.
There are two types of township in Michigan: general law township and charter. Charter township status was created by the Legislature in 1947 and grants additional powers and stream-lined administration in order to provide greater protection against annexation by a city. As of April 2001, there were 127 charter townships in Michigan. In general, charter townships have many of the same powers as a city but without the same level of obligations. For example, a charter township can have its own fire department, water & sewage department, police department, and so on—just like a city—but it is not required to have those things, whereas cities must provide those services. Charter townships can opt to use county-wide services instead, such as deputies from the county sheriff's office instead of a home-based force of ordinance officers.
Michigan map, including territorial watersMichigan consists of two peninsulas that lie between 82°30' to about 90º30' west longitude, and are separated by the Straits of Mackinac.
The state is bounded on the south by the of Ohio and Indiana, sharing both land and water boundaries with both. Michigan's western boundaries are almost entirely water boundaries, from south to north, with Illinois and Wisconsin in Lake Michigan; then a land boundary with Wisconsin and the Upper Peninsula, that is principally demarcated by the Menominee and Montreal rivers; then water boundaries again, in Lake Superior, with Wisconsin and Minnesota to the west, capped by Ontario to the north. The northern boundary then runs completely through Lake Superior, from the western boundary with Minnesota to a point north of and around Isle Royale, thence travelling southeastward through the lake in a reasonably straight line to the Sault Ste. Marie area. Ontario is the sole neighbour to the north and east, and is Michigan's largest trading partner. Windsor, Ontario, once the south bank of Detroit, Upper Canada, has the distinction of being the only part of Canada which lies to the due south of a part of the lower 48 continguous United . The eastern boundary ends in Lake Erie with a three-way convergence of Michigan, Ohio and Ontario. Michigan also shares a water boundary with the Canadian First Nation reserve of Walpole Island.
Michigan encompasses 58,110 square miles (150,504 km²) of land, 38,575 square miles (99,909 km²) of Great Lakes waters and 1,305 square miles (3,380 km²) of inland waters. Only the state of Alaska has more territorial water and Michigan is well ahead of third ranked Florida which has 11,827.77 square miles (30,633.8 km²). At a total of 97,990 square miles (253,793 km²), it is the largest state east of the Mississippi River (inclusive of its territorial waters). It is the 10th largest state in the Union.
The heavily forested Upper Peninsula is relatively mountainous in the west. The Porcupine Mountains, which are the oldest mountains in North America, rise to an altitude of almost 2,000 feet above sea level and form the watershed between the streams flowing into Lake Superior and Lake Michigan. The surface on either side of this range is rugged. The state's highest point is Mount Arvon at 1,979 feet (603 m). The peninsula is as large as Connecticut, Delaware, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island combined, but has less than 330,000 inhabitants, who are sometimes called "Yoopers" (from "U.P.'ers") and whose speech (the "Yooper dialect") has been heavily influenced by the large number of Scandinavian and Canadian immigrants who settled the area during the mining boom of the late 1800's.
The Lower Peninsula, shaped like a mitten, is 277 miles (446 km) long from north to south and 195 miles (314 km) from east to west and occupies nearly two-thirds of the state's land area. The surface of the peninsula is generally level, broken by conical hills rising to an elevation difference not exceeding 200 feet. It is divided by a low water divide running north and south. The larger portion of the state is on the west of this and gradually slopes toward Lake Michigan. The highest point in the Lower Peninsula is not definitely established but is either Briar Hill at 1,705 feet (520 m), or one of several points nearby. The lowest point is the surface of Lake Erie at 571 feet (174 m).
The geographic orientation of Michigan's peninsulas make for a long distance between the ends of the state. Ironwood, in the far western Upper Peninsula, lies 630 highway miles (1,015 km) from the Toledo, Ohio suburb of Lambertville in the Lower Peninsula's southeastern corner. The geographic isolation of the Upper Peninsula from Michigan's political and population centers makes it culturally and economically distinct, and the feeling that Lansing and Detroit do not care about the U.P. has led to occasional calls for secession from Michigan and admission as a new state called "Superior."
There are numerous lakes and marshes in both peninsulas, and the coast is much indented. Keweenaw, Whitefish, and the Big and Little Bays De Noc are the principal indentations on the Upper Peninsula, while the Grand and Little Traverse, Thunder, and Saginaw bays indent the Lower Peninsula. After Alaska, Michigan has the longest shoreline of any state—2,288 miles (3,681 km). An additional 879 miles (1,415 km) can be added if islands are included. This roughly equals the length of the Atlantic Coast from Maine to Florida. The state has numerous large islands, the principal ones being the Manitou, Beaver, and Fox groups in Lake Michigan; Isle Royale and Grande Isle in Lake Superior; Marquette, Bois Blanc, and Mackinac Islands in Lake Huron; and Nebish, Sugar, and Drummond Islands in St. Mary's River (see also Islands of Michigan).
The state's rivers are small, short and shallow, and few are navigable. The principal ones include the Au Sable, Thunder Bay, Cheboygan, and Saginaw, all of which flow into Lake Huron; the Ontonagon, and Tahquamenon, which flow into Lake Superior; and the St. Joseph, Kalamazoo, Grand, and Escanaba, which flow into Lake Michigan. (See List of Michigan rivers). The state has 11,037 inland lakes and 38,575 square miles (62,067 km) of Great Lakes waters and rivers and 1,305 square miles of inland water on top of that. No point in Michigan is more than 6 miles (10 km) from an inland lake or more than 85 miles (137 km) from one of the Great Lakes.
Detroit is the only major city in the United from which one must travel southward to cross the border into Canada. Metropolitan Detroit/Ann Arbor/Flint/Windsor is also the world's largest international metropolitan area.
The state is home to several national parks, including: Isle Royale National Park, Keweenaw National Historical Park, Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore, Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore, and Father Marquette National Memorial. The North Country National Scenic Trail also passes through Michigan.
See also: Protected areas of Michigan and List of Michigan state parks
The geological formation of the state is greatly varied. Primary boulders are found over the entire surface of the Upper Peninsula (being principally of primitive origin), while Secondary deposits cover the entire Lower Peninsula. The Upper Peninsula exhibits Lower Silurian sandstones, limestones, copper and iron bearing rocks, corresponding to the Huronian system of Canada. The central portion of the Lower Peninsula contains coal measures and rocks of the permo-Carboniferous period. Devonian and sub-Carboniferous deposits are scattered over the entire state.
The soil is of a varied composition and in large areas is very fertile, especially in the south. However, the Upper Peninsula for the most part is rocky and mountainous, and the soil is unsuitable for agriculture. The climate is tempered by the proximity of the lakes and is much milder than in other locales with the same latitude. The principal forest trees include basswood, maple, elm, sassafras, butternut, walnut, poplar, hickory, oak, willow, pine, birch, beech, hemlock, witchhazel, tamarack, cedar, locust, dogwood, and ash.
Census Pop. %±
1810 4,762 27%
1820 7,452 56%
1830 28,004 276%
1840 212,267 658%
1850 397,654 87%
1860 749,113 88%
1870 1,184,059 58%
1880 1,636,937 38%
1890 2,093,890 28%
1900 2,420,982 16%
1910 2,810,173 16%
1920 3,668,412 31%
1930 4,842,325 32%
1940 5,256,106 9%
1950 6,371,766 21%
1960 7,823,194 23%
1970 8,875,083 13%
1980 9,262,078 4%
1990 9,295,297 0%
2000 9,938,444 7%
2005 est. 10,120,860
As of 2005, Michigan has an estimated population of 10,120,860, which is an increase of 16,654, or 0.2%, from the prior year and an increase of 182,380, or 1.8%, since the year 2000. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 235,760 people (that is 691,897 births minus 456,137 deaths) and a decrease from net migration of 42,183 people out of the state. Immigration from outside the United resulted in a net increase of 200,126 people, and migration within the country produced a net loss of 165,084 people. The state's population increased by 817,000 between 1990 and 2004, an 8.8% growth. As of 2000, the state had the 8th largest population in the Union.
Demographics of Michigan (csv)
By race White Black AIAN Asian NHPI
AIAN is American Indian or Alaskan Native - NHPI is Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander
2000 (total population) 83.05% 14.92% 1.26% 2.10% 0.08%
2000 (hispanic only) 2.98% 0.22% 0.11% 0.03% 0.01%
2005 (total population) 82.65% 15.05% 1.21% 2.57% 0.08%
2005 (hispanic only) 3.51% 0.23% 0.11% 0.05% 0.02%
Growth 2000-2005 (total population) 1.35% 2.77% -2.51% 24.24% 12.50%
Growth 2000-2005 (non-hispanic only) 0.66% 2.67% -2.71% 24.04% 10.70%
Growth 2000-2005 (hispanic only) 19.89% 9.70% -0.48% 36.87% 20.51%
As of 2004, the state had a foreign-born population of 594,700 (5.9% of the state population). In recent years, the foreign born population has grown in the state.
The five largest reported ancestries in Michigan are: German (20.4%), African American (14.2%), Irish (10.7%), English (9.9%), Polish (8.6%).
Americans of German ancestry are present throughout most of Michigan. People of Nordic (especially Finnish), British (notably Cornish), and French ancestry have a notable presence in the Upper Peninsula. Western Michigan is known for the Dutch heritage of many residents (the highest concentration of any state), especially in the Grand Rapids-Holland area. Metro Detroit has many residents of Polish and Irish descent, and is home to the largest Arab and Chaldean community in the United . African-Americans form a majority of the population of the city of Detroit and of several other cities, including Flint, Southfield and Benton Harbor.
Michigan population distribution
The religious affiliations of the people of Michigan are:
Christian – 82%
Protestant – 58%
Baptist – 15%
Methodist – 10%
Pentecostal – 7%
Lutheran – 5%
United Church of Christ – 3%
Church of Christ – 2%
Other Protestant – 12%
Roman Catholic- 23%
Other Christian – 1%
Muslim – 2%
Jewish – 1%
Other Religions – <1%
Non-Religious – 15%
Michigan has a higher percentage of Muslims (who live mainly in the Detroit area) and a higher percentage of Reformed Christians (concentrated in the western part of the state) than any other American state.
See also: List of companies based in Michigan
The Michigan economy is involved in information technology, life sciences, and advanced manufacturing. Michigan ranks 4th nationally in high tech employment with 568,000 high tech workers, including 70,000 in the automotive industry. Michigan ranks 3rd in overall Research & Development investment expenditures in the U.S. The domestic Auto Industry accounts directly and indirectly for one of every ten jobs in the U.S.
Michigan has been able to manage recent economic hardships brought on by the severe stock market decline following the September 11, 2001 attacks which caused a pension and benefit fund crisis for many American companies including General Motors, Ford, and DaimlerChrysler. The American Auto companies are proving to be more resilient than other affected industries as each company implements its respective turnaround plan. Nevertheless, Michigan ranked 2nd nationally in new corporate facilities and expansions in 2004. From 1997 to 2004, Michigan was listed as the only state to top the 10,000 mark for the number of major new developments, led by Metro Detroit.
Even though Michigan is known as the birthplace of the automobile industry, its diverse economy leads in many other areas. Michigan has a booming biotechnology and life sciences corridor. Pfizer makes Michigan one of its largest global employment locations; the company invests billions of dollars in Michigan based research. As leading research institutions, the University of Michigan and Michigan State University are both important partners in the State's economy. Michigan's workforce is well educated and highly skilled making it attractive to companies. Michigan's infrastructure gives it a competitive edge, Michigan has 38 deep water ports. Detroit Metropolitan Airport is one of the nation's most recently expanded and modernized airports with six major runways and large aircraft maintenance facilities capable of servicing and repairing the Boeing 747. Michigan's schools and colleges rank among the nation's best. Michigan is a leading grower of fruit including cherries, blueberries, apples, grapes, and peaches. It produces wines and a multitude of food products. Some of the major industries/products/services include automobiles (General Motors, Ford, Daimler-Chrysler), Amway, cereal (Kellogg's), information technology, computer software (Compuware, IBM), pharmaceuticals (Pfizer), medical products (Stryker), aerospace systems equipment (Smith Aerospace, Eaton Aerospace), military equipment (General Dynamics, Raytheon), lasers (Rofin-Sinar), financial services (Quicken Loans, Comerica, National City Bank), energy equipment (DTE Energy), fuel cells (Next Energy) seating (Lear), copper, iron, furniture (Steelcase, Herman Miller, Haworth, and La-Z-Boy). In July of 2006, Google announced it locate a new facility in Ann Arbor and add 1000 new jobs.
Michigan has a thriving tourist industry, with destinations such as Traverse City, Mackinac Island, Ludington, Muskegon, Saugatuck, the Upper Peninsula, Frankenmuth, Grand Haven, and Detroit, drawing vacationers, hunters, and nature enthusiasts from across the United and Canada. Although it has an urban image to non-visitors, Michigan is actually fifty percent forest land, much of it quite remote. Both the forests and thousands of miles of beaches are top attractions. Tourists also flock to many of the museums, particularly those in Metro Detroit, including The Henry Ford. The Metro Detroit area offers four major casinos, MGM Grand Detroit, Greektown, Motor City, and Casino Windsor; moreover, Detroit is the largest city to offer casino gambling.
Hunting is a major component of Michigan's economy. Michigan ranks first in the nation in licensed hunters (over one million) who contribute $2 billion annually to its economy. Over three-quarters of a million hunters participate in white-tailed deer season alone. Many K-12 school districts in rural areas of Michigan go so far as to cancel school on the opening day of rifle season, because of both safety and attendance concerns.
Michigan's Department of Natural Resources manages the largest dedicated state forest system in the nation. The forest products industry and recreational users contribute $12 billion and 200,000 associated jobs annually to the state's economy. Michigan has more than 90 native species of trees, more than all of Europe combined.
The Bureau of Economic Analysis estimates that Michigan's gross state product in 2004 was $372 billion. Per capita personal income in 2003 was $31,178 and ranked twentieth in the nation.
Michigan's flat tax rate on personal income is 3.90 percent gives it one of the lowest top brackets in the nation. Some cities impose additional income taxes. There is single business tax on small businesses that is set to expire by 2009, and a corporate tax is levied on larger concerns. Michigan offers a number of tax incentives to attract and retain business. Michigan ranks in the top 5 as a business friendly location. Michigan's state sales tax is 6 percent. The state does not allow city or local sales taxes. Property taxes are assessed on the local, not state, level.
However, based on Bureau of Economic Analysis, recent growth in Michigan is 0.1%, the lowest quintile across United . 
Interstate 75 is the main thoroughfare between Detroit and Flint, and it extends all the way to Sault Saint Marie and provides access to Sault Saint Marie, Ontario. The interstate crosses the Mackinac Bridge between the Lower and Upper Peninsulas. Branching highways include I-275 and I-375 in Detroit; I-475 in Flint; I-675 in Saginaw.
Interstate 69 enters the state near the Michigan-Ohio-Indiana border, and it extends to Port Huron and provides access to the Blue Water Bridge crossing into Sarnia, Ontario.
Interstate 94 enters the western end of the state at the Indiana border, and it travels east to Detroit and then northeast to Port Huron and ties in with I-69.
Interstate 96 runs east-west between Detroit and Muskegon. I-496 loops around Lansing. I-196 branches off from this highway at Grand Rapids and connects to I-94 near Benton Harbor. I-696 branches off from this highway at Novi and connects to I-94 near St Clair Shores and Eastpointe.
U.S. State Highways
Include: US 12, US 10, US 223, US 23, US 127, US 27, US 31, US 131, US 2, US 41, US 45, US 141.
Major bridges include the Ambassador Bridge, Blue Water Bridge, Mackinac Bridge, and International Bridge. Michigan also has the Detroit-Windsor Tunnel crossing into Canada.
Important cities and towns
Detroit's downtown viewed from the Detroit RiverFurther information: List of cities, villages, and townships in Michigan
The following are the largest metropolitan areas in Michigan, along with their 2000 population and 2000 national ranking (according to the 2000 census and the census bureau's 2003 definitions of "Metropolitan Statistical Area" and "Micropolitan Statistical Area"):
Detroit-Warren-Livonia, population 4,452,557 (9th)
Grand Rapids-Wyoming, population 740,482 (63rd)
Lansing-East Lansing, population 447,728 (99th)
Flint, population 436,141 (104th)
Ann Arbor, population 322,895 (140th)
Kalamazoo-Portage, population 314,866 (146th)
Holland-Grand Haven, population 238,314 (172nd)
Saginaw-Saginaw Township North, population 210,039 (188th)
Muskegon-Norton Shores, population 170,200 (219th)
Niles-Benton Harbor, population 162,453 (231st)
The census bureau also consolidates some of the above metro areas into "Combined Statistical Areas". These areas are listed below along with their 2000 population and 2000 national ranking (according to the 2000 census and the census bureau's definition of "Combined Statistical Area"):
Detroit-Warren-Flint, population 5,357,538 (8th)
Grand Rapids-Muskegon-Holland, population 1,254,661 (34th)
Lansing-East Lansing-Owosso, population 519,415 (60th)
Saginaw-Bay City-Saginaw Township North, population 320,196 (79th)
The largest municipalities in Michigan are (according to the 2000 census):
Detroit, population 951,270 (also known as "Motor City", Motown, "Hockeytown", and "The D")
Grand Rapids, population 197,800 ("The Furniture City")
Warren, population 138,247
Flint, population 124,943 (The birthplace of General Motors, also known as "The Vehicle City")
Sterling Heights, population 124,471
Lansing population 119,128, (the state capital)
Ann Arbor population 114,024, (the home of the University of Michigan, also known as "A²", "A-squared", "Tree Town", "Ace Deuce")
Livonia, population 100,545
Dearborn, population 98,000 (headquarters of the Ford Motor Company; birthplace of Henry Ford)
Clinton Township, population 95,648
Other important cities include:
Battle Creek ("Cereal City U.S.A.")
Bay City (major port on the Saginaw River)
East Lansing (home of Michigan State University)
Holland (Home of the Michigan Dutch)
Kalamazoo ("Celery City")
Marquette (largest city in the Upper Peninsula with 19,661 people).
Midland (headquarters of the Dow Chemical Company and the Dow Corning Corporation)
Port Huron (major international crossing and home of the Blue Water Bridge)
Sault Ste. Marie (home of the Soo Locks and Sault Ste. Marie International Bridge)
Saginaw (The largest of the Tri-Cities)
Traverse City ("Cherry Capital of the World")
Half of the wealthiest communities in the state are located in Oakland County, just north of Detroit. Only three of these cities are located outside of Metro Detroit. Detroit, with a per capita income of $14,717, ranks 517th on the list of Michigan locations by per capita income. Benton Harbor is the poorest city in Michigan, with a per capita income of $8,965.
Colleges and universities
Ave Maria College
Ave Maria School of Law
Calvin Theological Seminary
Center for Humanistic Studies
Central Bible College
Central Michigan University
College for Creative Studies
Cranbrook Academy of Art
Detroit Baptist Theological Seminary
Eastern Michigan University
Ecumenical Theological Seminary
Ferris State University
Grace Bible College
Grand Rapids Theological Seminary
Grand Valley State University
Great Lakes Christian College
Kendall College of Art and Design
Lake Superior State University
Lawrence Technological University
Lewis College of Business
Michigan Jewish Institute
Michigan State University
Michigan Technological University
Michigan Theological Seminary
Northern Michigan University
Puritan Reformed Theological Seminary
Sacred Heart Major Seminary
SS. Cyril and Methodius Seminary
Saginaw Valley State University
Siena Heights University
Spring Arbor University
Theological School of the Protestant Reformed Churches
Thomas M. Cooley Law School
University of Detroit Mercy
University of Michigan System
University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
University of Michigan-Dearborn
University of Michigan-Flint
Walsh College of Accountancy and Business
Wayne State University
Western Michigan University
Western Theological Seminary
William Tyndale College
Yeshiva Beth Yehudah Gedolah
Community colleges and technical schools
American College of Computer and Information Sciences
Alpena Community College
Bay de Noc Community College
Bay Mills Community College
Ellis College of NYIT
Glen Oaks Community College
Gogebic Community College
Grand Rapids Community College
Henry Ford Community College
ITT Technical Institute - Canton, Grand Rapids, and Troy
Jackson Community College
Kalamazoo Valley Community College
Kellogg Community College
Kirtland Community College
Lake Michigan College
Lansing Community College
Macomb Community College
Mid-Michigan Community College
Monroe County Community College
Montcalm Community College
Mott Community College
Muskegon Community College
National Institute of Technology - Southfield and Wyoming
North Central Michigan College
Northwestern Michigan College
Oakland Community College
Olympia Career Training Institute - Grand Rapids and Kalamazoo
Ross Medical Education Center - Saginaw, Flint, Grand Rapids, Brighton, Muskegon, Redford, Warren, Port Huron, Lansing, Ann Arbor
Saint Clair County Community College
Southwestern Michigan College
University of Phoenix - Detroit and Grand Rapids
Washtenaw Community College
Wayne County Community College
West Shore Community College
Professional sports teams
Most major league sports teams in Michigan are located in Metro Detroit, with the Detroit Tigers baseball team (MLB), Detroit Lions football team (NFL), and Detroit Red Wings ice hockey team (NHL) located within the city of Detroit. The Detroit Pistons men's basketball team of NBA and the Detroit Shock women's basketball team of the WNBA play at the Palace of Auburn Hills. (The Pistons played at Detroit's Cobo Arena until 1978, and at Pontiac's Silverdome until 1988.) The Detroit Lions played at Tiger Stadium in Detroit until 1974, then moved out to the Pontiac Silverdome in Pontiac before moving back to Detroit's Ford Field in 2002. The Arena Football League's Grand Rapids Rampage is the state's other "major league" sports team. Seven-time Grand Slam champion Serena Williams was born in Saginaw. Professional hockey got its start in Houghton, Michigan in the U.P., when the Portage Lakers were formed.
Other notable sports teams include:
Club Sport League
Alpena Ice Diggers Ice hockey North American Hockey League
Flint Generals Ice hockey United Hockey League
Grand Rapids Griffins Ice hockey American Hockey League
Kalamazoo Wings Ice Hockey United Hockey League
Marquette Rangers Ice Hockey North American Hockey League
Muskegon Fury Ice hockey United Hockey League
Plymouth Whalers Ice hockey Ontario Hockey League
Port Huron Flags Ice hockey United Hockey League
Saginaw Spirit Ice hockey Ontario Hockey League
Traverse City North Stars Ice hockey North American Hockey League
Lansing Lugnuts Baseball Minor League Baseball, Midwest League
Great Lakes Loons Baseball Minor League Baseball, Midwest League
Kalamazoo Kings Baseball Minor League Baseball
Traverse City Beach Bums Baseball Minor League Baseball
West Michigan Whitecaps Baseball Minor League Baseball, Midwest League
Michigan Mayhem Basketball Continental Basketball Association
Grand Rapids Rampage Arena football Arena Football League
Battle Creek Crunch Indoor football Great Lakes Indoor Football League
Motor City Reapers Indoor football Great Lakes Indoor Football League
Muskegon Thunder Indoor football Great Lakes Indoor Football League
Port Huron Pirates Indoor football Great Lakes Indoor Football League
Detroit Demolition Football Independent Women's Football League
Detroit Ignition Soccer Major Indoor Soccer League
Kalamazoo Kingdom Soccer USL Premier Development League
Michigan Bucks Soccer USL Premier Development League
Michigan Hawks Soccer W-League
Michigan Phoenix Soccer Women's Premier Soccer League
West Michigan Edge Soccer USL Premier Development League
West Michigan Firewomen Soccer W-League
See also: List of Michigan sport championships
Michigan is simultaneously known for its cities, supported by heavy industry, and its pristine wilderness, home to more than 11,000 lakes. The clang and clamor of Metro Detroit's crowded thoroughfares and busy factories stand in vivid counterpoint to the tranquility found in virtually every corner of the state.
An individual from Michigan is called a "Michiganian" or "Michigander". Also at times, but rarely, a "Michiganite". A resident of Michigan's Upper Peninsula ("the U.P.") is often called a "Yooper" . In turn, residents of the lower peninsula are referred to as "trolls" — because they "live below the Mackinac Bridge." As the Lower Peninsula is famously shaped like a mitten, residents often use their left hand or right palm as a shorthand "map" to illustrate the part of the state from which they hail, or any other location to which they may be referring. This may also be done for the Upper Peninsula by using the palm of the left hand turned on its side.
Its U.S. postal abbreviation is "MI" (traditional: "Mich."). The U.S. Navy's three ships called USS Michigan were named in honor of the state. Michigan is nicknamed the "Great Lakes State", and also the "Wolverine State", from a nickname earned during the Toledo War.
Michigan has over 130 lighthouses, the most of any U.S. state. The first lighthouses in Michigan were built between 1818 and 1822. They were built to project light at night and to serve as a landmark during the day to safely guide the passenger ships and freighters traveling the Great Lakes. See Lighthouses in the United .
Michigan has the most registered boats (over 1 million) of any state in the Union.
Michigan is home to the Soo Locks, the world's busiest lock system, and the Mackinac and Ambassador Bridges, each formerly the world's longest suspension bridge.
Michigan's 2004 commemorative quarter featured the outline of the state and the surrounding lakes.
Michigan is home to more public golf courses than any other state.
State nicknames: Wolverine State, Great Lakes State, Mitten State, Water Winter Wonderland
State motto: Si quaeris peninsulam amoenam circumspice (Latin: If you seek a pleasant peninsula, look about you). This is a paraphrase of a statement made by British architect Sir Christopher Wren about his influence on London.
State song: My Michigan (official since 1937, but disputed amongst Michiganders, see Michigan's State Songs)
State bird: American Robin (since 1931)
State animal: Wolverine (traditional, though not codified)
State game animal: White-tailed Deer (since 1997)
State fish: Brook Trout (since 1965)
State reptile: Painted Turtle (since 1995)
State fossil: Mastodon (since 2000)
State flower: Apple Blossom (adopted in 1897, official in 1997)
State wildflower: Dwarf Lake Iris (since 1998). Known as Iris lacustris, it is a federally-listed threatened species.
State tree: White Pine (since 1955)
State stone: Petoskey stone (since 1965). It is composed of fossilized coral (Hexagonaria pericarnata) from long ago when the middle of the continent was covered with a shallow sea.
State gem: Isle Royale greenstone (since 1973). Also called chlorastrolite (literally "green star stone"), the mineral is found on Isle Royale and the Keweenaw peninsula.
State soil: Kalkaska Sand (since 1990), ranges in color from black to yellowish brown, covers nearly a million acres (4,000 km²) in 29 counties.
Shiga Prefecture, Japan
List of Michigan counties
List of Michigan-related topics
List of highways in Michigan
List of people from Michigan
Scouting in Michigan
^ "Does Michigan have the longest coast line in the United ?" Michigan.gov
^ Farmer, Silas  (2005). “Legislatures and Laws”, The history of Detroit and Michigan; or, The metropolis illustrated; a full record of territorial days in Michigan, and the annals of Wayne County. Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan Library, pp. 94. Retrieved on 2006-06-15.
^ Article II, § 9 of state constitution
^ Michigan claims a land area of 58,110 square miles of land and 97,990 sq mi total, making it the tenth largest state, (http://www.michigan.gov/documents/hal_lm_MiB_156795_7.pdf) but the U.S. Census Bureau claims only 56,803.82 sq mi of land and 96,716.11 sq mi total, making it the 11th largest.
^ MEDC (2006).Michigan: High Technology Focus State of Michigan
^ NSF 01-320 (2001).R&D Spending is Highly Concentrated in a Small Number of National Science Foundation
^ Alliance of Automobile Manufaturers (2006). From the 2003 Study "Contributions of the Automotive Industry to the U.S. Economy" University of Michigan and the Center for Automotive Reseach
^ MEDC (2005) Michigan #2 in the Nation for New Corporate Facilities and Expansions in 2004 Globeinvestor.com PR NEWS WIRE
^ MEDC 2006. Lifesciences Corridor State of Michigan.
^ MEDC (2006). Commercial PortsState of Michigan
^ Detroit Regional Chamber.
^ MEDC (2006).Michigan Ranked #5 Small Business-Friendly State State of Michigan.
^ "Michiganian or Michigander?" Michigan.gov
Michigan's State Symbols
Michigan Department of Education
Michigan Constitutions of 1835, 1850, 1908, and 1963
Michigan.gov Fact Sheet
Michigan travel guide from Wikitravel
v·d·e State of Michigan
Topics Governor | Legislature | Supreme Court | History
Regions Upper Peninsula: Copper Country | Keweenaw Peninsula
Lower Peninsula: Central Michigan | Southeastern Michigan (including Metro Detroit) | Michiana | Northern Michigan | The Thumb | Southern Michigan | Western Michigan
Cities Ann Arbor | Battle Creek | Bay City | Canton | Clinton Township | Dearborn | Detroit | East Lansing | Flint | Grand Rapids | Jackson | Kalamazoo | Lansing | Livonia | Midland | Pontiac | Rochester Hills | Saginaw | Shelby | Southfield | Sterling Heights | Taylor | Troy | Warren | West Bloomfield | Westland
Counties Alcona | Alger | Allegan | Alpena | Antrim | Arenac | Baraga | Barry | Bay | Benzie | Berrien | Branch | Calhoun | Cass | Charlevoix | Cheboygan | Chippewa | Clare | Clinton | Crawford | Delta | Dickinson | Eaton | Emmet | Genesee | Gladwin | Gogebic | Grand Traverse | Gratiot | Hillsdale | Houghton | Huron | Ingham | Ionia | Iosco | Iron | Isabella | Jackson | Kalamazoo | Kalkaska | Kent | Keweenaw | Lake | Lapeer | Leelanau | Lenawee | Livingston | Luce | Mackinac | Macomb | Manistee | Marquette | Mason | Mecosta | Menominee | Midland | Missaukee | Monroe | Montcalm | Montmorency | Muskegon | Newaygo | Oakland | Oceana | Ogemaw | Ontonagon | Osceola | Oscoda | Otsego | Ottawa | Presque Isle | Roscommon | Saginaw | Sanilac | Schoolcraft | Shiawassee | St. Clair | St. Joseph | Tuscola | Van Buren | Washtenaw | Wayne | Wexford