Pharmacy Shelving Minnesota
Pharmacy Shelving
Pharmacy Shelving
Pharmacy Shelving  


Ada Aitkin Albert Lea Alexandria Andover Annandale Anoka Austin
Bagley Bemidji Benson Big Lake Blue Earth Brainerd Buffalo Burnsville
Caledonia Cambridge Cannon Falls Chanhassen Chaska Circle Pines Cloquet Cottage Grove Crookston Crosslake
Dalton Deer River Delano Detroit Lakes Duluth
East Grand Forks Eden Prairie Elk River Ely Excelsior
Fairmont Faribault Farmington Fergus Falls Forest Lake
Glencoe Glenwood Grand Marais Grand Rapids Granite Falls
Hastings Hibbing Hopkins Hutchinson
International Falls Inver Grove Heights
La Crescent Lake City Lakeville Lindstrom Litchfield Little Falls Long Prairie Luverne
Mankato Maple Lake Maple Plain Marshall Melrose Minneapolis Minnetonka Montevideo Monticello Moorhead Mora Morris Mound
New Prague New Ulm Nisswa North Branch Northfield
Olivia Osseo Owatonna
Park Rapids Paynesville Pelican Rapids Pequot Lakes Perham Pine City Pine River Pipestone Princeton Prior Lake
Red Wing Redwood Falls Rochester Rogers Roseau Rosemount
Saint Cloud Saint James Saint Paul Saint Peter Sauk Centre Sauk Rapids Savage Shakopee Sleepy Eye South Saint Paul Spicer Stillwater
Thief River Falls Two Harbors
Waconia Wadena Waite Park Walker Waseca Wayzata Willmar Windom Winona Worthington Wyoming

Flag of Minnesota

Seal of Minnesota

Nickname(s) : North Star State,
The Land of 10,000 Lakes, The Gopher State

Motto(s) : L'Etoile du nord




Saint Paul

Largest city



Ranked 12 th

- Total

87,014 sq mi
(225,365 km²)

- Width

250 miles (400 km)

- Length

400 miles (645 km)

- % water


- Latitude

43°34'N to 49°23'50.26"N

- Longitude

89°34'W to 97°12'W


Ranked 21 st

- Total ( 2000 )


- Density

61.80/sq mi 
23.86/km² (31 st )



- Highest point

Eagle Mountain
2,301 ft (701 m)

- Mean

1,198 ft (365 m)

- Lowest point

600 ft (183 m)

Admission to Union

May 11 , 1858 (32 nd )


Tim Pawlenty (R)

U.S. Senators

Mark Dayton (D)
Norm Coleman (R)

Time zone

Central : UTC -6/ -5



Web site

Minnesota ( IPA : [?m?n?'so???] ) is a state in the Midwestern region of the United . It is the 12 th largest state in the U.S., with an area of 87,014 square miles (225,365 km²). Minnesota was carved out of the eastern half of the Minnesota Territory and admitted to the Union as the 32 nd state in 1858. Its population of over five million is primarily of western European descent, with the principal minorities being African Americans , Asians , Hispanics , Native Americans descended from the original inhabitants, and recent immigrant communities of Somalis and Hmongs .

The majority of Minnesota residents live in the Twin Cities metropolitan area , the center of transport, business and industry, and home to an internationally-known arts community. The remainder of the state, often referred to as Greater Minnesota , consists of western prairies now given over to intensive agriculture, eastern deciduous forests also heavily farmed and settled, and the less-populated northern boreal forest . The state is known as the "Land of 10,000 Lakes", and those lakes and the other waters for which the state is named together with state and national forests and parks offer residents and tourists a vigorous outdoor lifestyle.

The extremes of the climate contrast with the moderation of Minnesota's people. The state is known for its moderate-to-progressive politics and social policies and its civic involvement and voter turnout. It ranks among the healthiest by a number of measures, and has one of the most highly-educated and literate populations.


[ hide ] 1 Origin of the name

2 Geography 2.1 Terrain

2.2 Flora and fauna

2.3 Climate

2.4 Lakes and rivers

2.5 Protected lands



3 History

4 Cities and towns

5 Demographics 5.1 Race and ancestry

5.2 Population distribution

5.3 Religion



6 Economy 6.1 Industry and commerce

6.2 Energy use and production

6.3 State taxes



7 Culture 7.1 Fine arts and architecture

7.2 Entertainment

7.3 Popular culture



8 Socio-economic 8.1 Education

8.2 Health

8.3 Crime and safety



9 Transportation

10 Law and government 10.1 Executive

10.2 Legislative

10.3 Judicial

10.4 Regional government



11 Politics

12 Media

13 Sports

14 State symbols

15 See also

16 References 16.1 Cited references

16.2 General references






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Origin of the name

The word Minnesota comes from the Dakota name for the Minnesota River , mnisota . Mni (sometimes mini , or minne ) can be translated as "water". Mnisota is then translated as sky-tinted water or somewhat clouded water . [1] [2] Native Americans demonstrated the name to early settlers by dropping milk into water and calling it mnisota . Many locations in the state contain the Dakota word for water, such as Minnehaha Falls ("Waterfall", not "laughing waters" as is commonly thought), Minneiska ("White water"), Minnetonka , ("Big water"), Minnetrista ("Crooked water"), and Minneapolis which is a combination of mni and the Greek word for "city", polis .



Minnesota, showing roads and major bodies of water Minnesota is the northernmost state except for Alaska ; its Northwest Angle is the only part of the 48 contiguous lying north of the 49 th Parallel . The state borders Wisconsin on the east, and shares a water border in Lake Superior with Michigan . Iowa is to the south, North Dakota and South Dakota are west, and the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Manitoba are north. With 87,014 square miles (225,365 km²), or approximately 2.25% of the United , [3] Minnesota is the 12 th largest state, and second largest among the Midwestern . Minnesota is in the sub-region known as the Upper Midwest .



Much of the state is relatively flat, but pockmarked with lakes, having been eroded by glacial periods during the Ice Age . The extreme southeastern portion of the state is part of the Driftless Zone , which was not covered by the recent Wisconsin glaciation . It is here that Lake Pepin and the rugged high bluffs of the Mississippi River are found. The northeastern portion of the state is on the Canadian Shield and is covered by rugged ranges of hills, notably the Mesabi Range , rich in iron ore, the Sawtooth Mountains along the shore of Lake Superior , the Misquah Hills and the Laurentian Highlands in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area .

Two continental divides meet in the northwestern part of Minnesota, creating three watersheds. Rain falling in the state can follow the Mississippi River south to the Gulf of Mexico , the St. Lawrence Seaway east to the Atlantic Ocean , or the Hudson Bay watershed to the Arctic Ocean .

The state's average elevation is 1,200 feet (366 m). The high point is Eagle Mountain at 2,301 ft (701 m) and a low of 602 ft (183 m) at the surface of Lake Superior. Minnesota is one of the most geologically stable regions in the country. It experiences very few earthquakes , most of which are minor; the strongest earthquake in the last century occurred near Morris in 1975 and rated between 4.6 and 4.8 in magnitude .


Flora and fauna

Three of the great biomes of North America converge in Minnesota: the Great Plains of the west, the Eastern Deciduous Forest , and the Northern Boreal Forest of the Canadian Shield . Minnesota's northern forest has been nearly completely logged at one time or another leaving only a few patches of old growth forest , but regrowth keeps large portions of the state forested. While loss of habitat has created troubles for native animals such as the pine marten , North American elk , woodland caribou and bobcat , the state contains the nation's largest population of timber wolves outside Alaska and supports healthy populations of moose and whitetail deer . Located on the Mississippi Flyway , the state hosts migratory waterfowl such as geese and ducks , as well as game birds such as grouse , pheasants , and turkeys . Minnesota's lakes teem with the many sport fish of the region including walleye , bass , muskellunge , and northern pike . The streams in the southeast are populated with brook trout , brown trout , and rainbow trout .

See also: Category:Fauna of Minnesota and List of Minnesota trees


A train stuck in snow in southern Minnesota, March 29 , 1881 Minnesota has temperature extremes characteristic of its continental climate , with cold winters and warm summers. The state's climate is profoundly affected by the jet stream which can create winter temperatures lower than some parts of Alaska. As Minnesota is located far inland, its climate is unmoderated by large bodies of water except for highly localized effects near Lake Superior .

Minnesota is exposed to blizzards during its long winter, and thunderstorms the rest of the year. The latter can spawn tornadoes . Tornado activity peaks during the months of May through July because the state is located on the northern edge of Tornado Alley .

Temperature extremes range from a low of -60 °Fahrenheit (-51 °C) measured at Tower in the north on February 2 , 1996 , to highs of 114 °F (45.5 °C) reached in both 1917 and 1936 in the western part of the state. [4] The average temperature in the coldest month, January, is 11.2 °F (-11.5 °C), and the average in the warmest month, July, is 73.1 °F (22.8 °C). Averages are cooler in the north and warmer in the south. The average annual precipitation is 28.32 inches (719 mm), with a snowfall figure of 49.6 inches (126 cm).


Lakes and rivers

The state's nickname, The Land of 10,000 Lakes, is no exaggeration: there are 11,842 lakes over 10 acres in size. [5] The Minnesota portion of Lake Superior is the largest and deepest body of water in the state.

Minnesota has 6,564 natural rivers and streams that travel over 69,000 miles. The nation's second longest and the world's third largest river, the Mississippi , begins its 2,552 mile journey at Lake Itasca in northern Minnesota. It is joined at Fort Snelling by the Minnesota River , and in the southeast by many trout streams. The Red River of the North , in the bed of glacial Lake Agassiz , drains the northwest part of the state northward towards Canada's Hudson Bay .

See also: List of lakes in Minnesota and List of Minnesota rivers

Protected lands

Saganaga Lake in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness Minnesota is home to many park lands. The state has 71 state parks ( List of Minnesota state parks ), 53 state forests ( List of Minnesota state forests ), two national forests ( List of U.S. national forests ) and many other wildlife preserves and regional parks. The Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness is located on the northeastern border of the state, and Itasca State Park , the official source of the Mississippi River , is located in the north central section. The Minnesota Department of Natural Resources is in charge of managing state parks and forests.

Areas under the management of the National Park Service include:

Grand Portage National Monument in Grand Portage

Mississippi National River and Recreation Area within the Twin Cities

North Country National Scenic Trail

Pipestone National Monument at Pipestone

Voyageurs National Park




Main article: History of Minnesota The first people came to the region that now forms Minnesota during the last Ice Age , following herds of large game. The Anishinaabe , the Sioux , and the other Native American inhabitants of the region represent the ancestors of these first early settlers. European presence began with the arrival of French fur traders in the 1600s . During the 1800s most of the Native American population was pushed out as American settlers moved westward. By 1858 , thousands of people had come to build farms and cut timber , and Minnesota became the 32nd US state .


Cities and towns

The capital city of Minnesota is Saint Paul , located in the east-central part of the state along the east bank of the Mississippi River . Saint Paul is neighbored across the river by Minnesota's largest and most populous city, Minneapolis ; together they and their suburbs are known as the Twin Cities metropolitan area , the 16 th largest metropolitan area in the United [6] and home to about 54% of the state's population. [7] The remainder of the state is known as Greater Minnesota or Outstate Minnesota.

Minnesota cities with a population above fifty thousand (as of 2000) are, in descending order: Minneapolis , Saint Paul , Rochester , Duluth , Bloomington , Plymouth , Brooklyn Park , Eagan , St. Cloud , Coon Rapids , Burnsville , Eden Prairie , Maple Grove , Minnetonka , Blaine , and Woodbury . Of these, only Rochester, Duluth, and St. Cloud are outside the Twin Cities metropolitan area.

See also: List of cities in Minnesota


Minnesota Population Density Map Historical populations Census



















































2005 est [8]



Minnesota's population was estimated to be 5,132,799 in 2005, making it the 21 st most populous state in the nation. The population has increased 213,307 or 4.3% since 2000. [8] The gain since 2000 has resulted from a natural increase of 161,252 people (358,012 births minus 196,760 deaths) and net migration of 54,032 people into the state. Immigration from outside the United resulted in a net increase of 70,800 people, while migration within the country produced a net loss of 16,768 people.

As of 2004 6.1% of Minnesota residents were foreign-born, compared to 11.1% for the nation.


Race and ancestry

Over 75% of the population is of Western European descent, with the largest reported ancestries being German (37.3%), Norwegian (17.0%), Irish (12.2%), and Swedish (10.0%). [9] The state had a reputation of being relatively homogenous, but that is changing. The Latino population of Minnesota is expected to increase to 6% by 2030. [10] Chinese and Japanese have had long presences in the state. Recent immigrants have come from all over the world, including Hmongs , Somalis , Vietnamese , Indians , Middle Easterners , and emigrants from the former Soviet bloc . The state has the second-largest Hmong population in the United and St. Paul and the Twin Cities are home to the world's second largest group of urban Hmongs [ citation needed ] . Many modern immigrants have been sponsored and assisted by religious congregations.

The racial makeup of the state as of 2005: [11]

86.3% White (not Hispanic)

4.1% Black (not Hispanic)

3.4% Asian /Pacific Islander

1.1% Native American /Alaskan Native

1.5% Mixed Race

1.8% Some other race

3.6% Hispanic , a category that includes people of any race



Population distribution

Minnesota age pyramid as of 2000. The population distribution by age in 2000 was: [12]

18+ 3,632,585 (73.8%)

21+ 3,414,300 (69.4%)

62+ 696,775 (14.2%)

65+ 594,266 (12.1%)

Median age (years) 35.4




Basilica of St. Mary, Minneapolis Over 75% of the Minnesota's population identify themselves as Christians. Recently immigrants have formed appreciable communities of Muslims , Buddhists and Hindus .

Religious affiliations in Minnesota: [13]

Roman Catholic – 25%

Protestant : Lutheran – 24%

Baptist – 5%

Methodist – 4%

Presbyterian – 2%

Assemblies of God – 2%

Church of God – 2%

Other Protestant – 6%



Christian (unstated) – 7%

Judaism – 1%

Other – 2%

No religion – 15%

Refused to answer – 6%




The Minnesota state quarter The Bureau of Economic Analysis estimates that Minnesota's total state product in 2005 was $233.3 billion. Per capita personal income in 2004 was $36,184, 8 th in the nation. [14] The average household income in 1999 was approximately $48,000, also ranking eighth in the nation ( U.S. Census Bureau ). Average household income per county averages range from $17,369 in Todd County to $42,313 in Hennepin County . In general, salaries are lowest in more rural areas, particularly in the northwest portion of the state.

Retail sales per capita were $10,260 in 1997, higher than the U.S. average of $9,190 (U.S. Census Bureau). The Twin Cities suburb of Roseville has the highest per capita sales, which recorded $14,870 per capita, but total revenues are much higher in Minneapolis, St. Paul, Bloomington, and Edina .


Industry and commerce

Minnesota's economy has transformed in the past 200 years from one based on raw materials to one based on finished products and services. The earliest industries were fur trading and agriculture. Agriculture is still a major part of the economy even though only a small percentage of the population, around 2%, consider themselves to be farmers. Minnesota is a leading US producer of sugar beets, soybeans, and corn. State agribusiness has changed from mere production to processing and the manufacture of value-added food products by companies such as General Mills , Cargill (milling), Hormel Foods Corporation of Austin (prepackaged and processed meat products), and the Schwan Food Company of Marshall (frozen foods).

Forestry, another early industry, remains strong with logging, pulpwood processing, forest products manufacturing and paper production.

Minnesota was famous for its soft-ore iron mines which produced a significant portion of the world's iron ore for over a century. Although the pure ore is now depleted, taconite mining remains strong using processes developed locally to save the industry. 3M Co. (formerly Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Co.), a company having its origins in mining, today is a diversified manufacturer of industrial and consumer products.

As might be expected in state with an outdoor orientation, boats and other recreational products are manufactured by a number of companies, and Polaris Industries makes snowmobiles and other off-road recreational vehicles.

Retail is represented by Target Corporation , Best Buy , and International Dairy Queen , all headquartered in the Twin Cities. The largest shopping mall in the United , the Mall of America , is located in Bloomington . Ecolab provides sanitation services and supplies.

Financial institutions include U.S. Bancorp , TCF Bank , and Wells Fargo & Co. ; insurers include St. Paul Travelers and Thrivent Financial for Lutherans .

An active high-technology sector is represented by Honeywell , Cray Computers , Imation , and a large IBM plant in Rochester. Medtronic represents a growing biomedical industry spawned by university research, and Rochester is the headquarters of the world-famous Mayo Clinic .


Energy use and production

Ethanol fuel is produced in the state, and a 10% mix of ethanol into consumer gasoline has been mandated since 1997. As of 2006, Minnesota is the only U.S. state with such a mandate. 20% ethanol will be mandated in 2013. A 2% biodiesel blend has also been required in diesel fuel since 2005. Electricity producing wind turbines have become popular, particularly in the windy southwest region. As of June 2006, the state is the country's fourth-largest wind energy producer, with 744 megawatts installed and an additional 128 MW planned. [15]

Like many Midwestern that experience cold winters, Minnesota is heavily dependent on natural gas for home heating. Just over two-thirds of homes use the fuel. The state does not produce any petroleum of its own but boasts the largest oil refinery of any non-oil-producing state, the Pine Bend Refinery . One of the longest pipelines in the world, the Lakehead Pipeline , also traverses northern Minnesota. Most of the petroleum used in the state comes from Canada and the northwestern United .


State taxes

Minnesota has three brackets of income tax rates, ranging from 5.35 percent to 7.85 percent. The sales tax in Minnesota for most items is 6.5 percent. The state does not charge sales tax on clothing , some services , or food items for home consumption. [16] It does tax prepared food, candy and soft drinks . [17] The state also imposes a use tax on items purchased elsewhere but used within Minnesota. Minnesota property owners pay property tax to their county, municipality, school district, and special taxing districts. Three factors that affect the tax bill are: the amount the local governments spend to provide services to the community, the estimated market value of the property, and the classification of the property.

Minnesota businesses and individuals paid an average of 11.8% of their income in state and local taxes in 1998, down from 12.7% in 1996 (Minnesota Department of Revenue).




Fine arts and architecture

The Twin Cities area is considered the capital for the arts in the Upper Midwest , the lead region among others such as the Twin Ports ( Duluth, Minnesota - Superior, Wisconsin ), Madison, Wisconsin and Milwaukee, Wisconsin . There is a very high per-capita attendance of theatrical , musical , and comedy events across the area, which some believe may be boosted by the cold winters but can be more realistically attributed to the large number of colleges, universities, and a generally strong economy, providing strong supply and demand for arts. In 2000, 2.3 million theater tickets were sold in the Twin Cities region. There are more theatre seats per capita than in any other American city, including New York City .



First Avenue nightclub, the most historic and influential small musical venue in the state. Main article: Music of Minnesota Minnesotan musicians from all genres have gained notoriety over the years, with the singing Andrews Sisters gaining worldwide prominence during World War II , followed most notably by Hibbing, MN native Bob Dylan (who launched his career playing free shows on the West Bank of the University of Minnesota Minneapolis campus), to the rise of punk rockers Hüsker Dü , Soul Asylum , the Replacements , and the rhythm and blues stylings of Morris Day and the Time and Prince in the 1980s. R&B mega-producing team Jimmy Jam & Terry Lewis have origins in the Twin Cities, and jazz musician Lester Young lived there for a time in his youth.

These later sources brought the Minneapolis music scene to national attention; the period from about 1977 to 1987 was a period of incredible dynamism in the Minneapolis music scene, with offshoots in the punk scene including Soul Asylum , Babes in Toyland , the Clams and many other seminal favorites, while Prince's immense power in the industry (which peaked during this period) created a Rhythm and Blues mini-empire at his Paisley Park Studios , based in suburban Chanhassen.

Contemporary local artists continue to enjoy critical acclaim such as hip-hop duo Atmosphere and frontman Slug 's label Rhymesayers Entertainment , the smaller Doomtree , and commercially successful pop-rockers Semisonic . While things have slowed considerably, the Twin Cities are still the region's musical hotbed. The area has also shown an unusual affinity for certain artists. For instance, while largely unnoticed on their home turf in New York City , the Twin Cities accounted for the majority of national sales for Soul Coughing 's second album Irresistible Bliss during its first eight weeks of release; this followed from the fledgling fan that Soul Coughing found here while touring for their first effort, Ruby Vroom .

Minnesota and Wisconsin have also contributed significantly to comedy in its many different forms. Ole and Lena jokes can't be fully appreciated unless delivered in the sing-songy accent of Scandinavian -Americans, and Garrison Keillor is known around the country for resurrecting the old-style radio comedy with A Prairie Home Companion . Local television had the satirical show The Bedtime Nooz in the 1960s, while area natives Lizz Winstead and Craig Kilborn helped create the increasingly influential Daily Show decades later. The standup scene of Minneapolis-St. Paul during the 1980s and 1990s was a major force in national comedy. Joel and Ethan Coen have produced many films featuring dark comedy , and numerous others brought the offbeat cult shows Mystery Science Theater 3000 and Let's Bowl to the national cable -waves from the Twin Cities.


Popular culture

Stereotypical Minnesotan traits include Lutheranism , " Minnesota nice ," " hot dish " (a Minnesotan term for casserole ), " lutefisk " (a pungent preparation of fish from Scandinavian recipes that include soaking in lye), very close family ties (and a strong sense of duty to their families, healthy and dysfunctional alike), a strong sense of community and shared culture with many other Minnesotans instead of just with one's town or city, Minnesota's form of Upper Midwest American English (including Scandinavian-sounding words like " uff da "), and a distinctive type of upper Midwestern accent .

Outdoor activities are major parts of the lives of many Minnesotans. Fishing is popular in Minnesota, over 36% of Minnesotans fish, second only to Alaska. [18] During the winter ice fishing is popular, as it has been since the early Scandinavian immigrants arrived. Hunting is another common activity. Families frequently own or share cabins on central and northern tracts of land in forests and adjoining lakes, and weekend trips out to these properties are common, particularly in the summer.

The 71 state parks which protect diverse landscapes in a state of nature are quite popular. A concern for environmentalism is shared by most state residents in one form or another, vegans and hunters alike. As with other northwoods (such as Wisconsin , Michigan and Maine ), residents like to joke that the mosquito is the state bird because of their high populations in these areas. In reality, Minnesota's state bird is the common loon , whose distinctive cry can often be heard by campers in the northern part of the state and can even on occasion be found as far south as the lakes of Minneapolis.





One of the first acts of the Minnesota Legislature when it opened in 1858 was the creation of a Normal School at Winona . Since then, Minnesota has remained among the ten strongest in the United in education in most surveys. It ranks sixth on the 2005-06 Morgan Quitno Smartest State Award and first on the percentage of its residents with a high school diploma or higher. [19] [20] While Minnesota has resisted movements in education such as school vouchers and the teaching of intelligent design , it is home to one of the first charter schools .

See also: List of colleges and universities in Minnesota , List of high schools in Minnesota , and List of school districts in Minnesota


The University of Minnesota Medical School is a highly-rated teaching institution which has made a number of significant breakthroughs in treatment, and its research activities significantly contribute to the state's growing biotechnical industry. [21] The Mayo Clinic , a world-renowned medical practice, is based in Rochester, Minnesota . Mayo and the University are partners in the Minnesota Partnership for Biotechnology and Medical Genomics a state-funded program which conducts research projects in cancer, Alzheimer's disease, heart health, obesity, and other areas. [22]

Minnesota ranks first in the percentage of residents engaging in regular physical exercise, and second in three crucial indices: low infant mortality; long life expectancies, and death rate per 100,000. [23] [24] [25] [26] These and other measures have led one group to rank Minnesota as the healthiest state in the nation, and another to rank it fourth. [27] [28] [29]


Crime and safety

After reaching a record 97 homicides in 1995, the city of Minneapolis gained an unpleasant nickname because of the violence: Murderapolis . The term gained widespread use after The New York Times used it when reporting that Minneapolis had surpassed the per capita homicide rate of New York City . The murder rate retreated in the following years, but area residents often grow concerned that the nickname may make a comeback whenever there is an uptick in violence in the city.



Main article: Transportation in Minnesota Transportation in Minnesota is overseen by the Minnesota Department of Transportation . Minnesota's major Interstate highways are I-35 , I-90 , and I-94 , all of which pass through or around the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area. There are nearly two dozen rail corridors within the State, most of which also pass through the Minneapolis-St. Paul area. Water transportation is primarily based in the Mississippi River system and ports along Lake Superior in northern Minnesota.

Minnesota's principal airport is Minneapolis-St. Paul International Airport (MSP), the headquarters and a major passenger and freight hub for Northwest Airlines . MSP is also a hub for Sun Country Airlines , and is served by most other domestic carriers. Large commercial jet service is also provided to and from airports at Duluth and Rochester , with scheduled commuter service available to six smaller cities.

Public transit in Minnesota is currently limited to bus systems in a number of the larger cities as well as a light rail commuter line in the Minneapolis-St. Paul area.


Law and government

Minnesota State Capitol building in Saint Paul As in the national government of the United , power in Minnesota is divided into three main branches: Executive, Legislative, and Judicial.



The executive branch is headed by the governor , currently Tim Pawlenty , a Republican , whose term began 6 January 2003 . The current lieutenant governor of Minnesota is Carol Molnau . Molnau also currently serves as the head of the Minnesota Department of Transportation . Both the governor and lieutenant governor have four-year terms. The governor has a cabinet consisting of the leaders of various government agencies in the state, called commissioners. The other constitutional offices are secretary of state , attorney general and state auditor .

See also: List of Governors of Minnesota


The Minnesota Legislature is a bicameral body consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives . The state has 67 districts, each covering about 60,000 people. Each district has one senator and two representatives (each district being divided into A and B sections). Senators serve for four years and representatives for two years. In the November 2004 election, the Republican Party retained control of the Minnesota House of Representatives by a single seat (68-66), having lost a total of 13 seats. The Minnesota Senate is controlled by the Minnesota Democratic-Farmer-Labor Party (DFL) (38-29).



Minnesota's court system has three levels. Trial courts are where most cases start. There are 257 trial court judges in ten judicial districts. Above that the Minnesota Court of Appeals is an intermediate appellate court. Sixteen judges sitting in three-judge panels hear appeals from the trial courts. Beyond that the Minnesota Supreme Court is composed of seven justices and hears appeals from the Court of Appeals, the Tax Court, and the Worker's Compensation Court. It also reviews all first-degree murder convictions and election disputes.

The state has two special courts created by state law as executive-branch agencies. The three-judge Tax Court deals with non-criminal tax cases. The five-judge Workers' Compensation Court of Appeals deals with cases involving worker injuries under the statutory worker's compensation scheme.

Federal cases are heard in the United District Court for the District of Minnesota , which holds court in Minneapolis, St. Paul, Duluth, and Fergus Falls. Appeals are heard by the Eighth Circuit Court of Appeals based in St. Louis, Missouri and St. Paul.


Regional government

Below the city and county levels of government found in the United , Minnesota has other entities that provide governmental oversight and planning. Some actions in the Twin Cities metropolitan area are coordinated by the Metropolitan Council , and many lakes and rivers are overseen by watershed districts and soil and water conservation districts .



Minnesota is known for active yet quirky politics, with populism being a longstanding force among all of the state's political parties . Minnesota politics include such oddities as Jesse Ventura , a professional wrestler turned governor and R.T. Rybak , a protester turned crowd-surfing mayor . Minnesota has consistently high voter turnout; in the 2004 U.S. presidential election 77.2% of eligible Minnesotans voted, the highest of any U.S. state. [30]

In the last half of the 20th century Minnesota has leaned Democratic but now is viewed as more a swing state. Minnesotans have voted for Democrats for president ever since 1976, longer than any other state. Minnesota and the District of Columbia were the only electoral votes not won by incumbent Republican President Ronald Reagan . Minnesota voters instead chose former Vice President and Senator Walter Mondale , a Minnesota native. He or Hubert Humphrey were on the Democratic ticket as candidates for President or Vice President in the 1964 , 1968 , 1976 , 1980 and 1984 elections.

The state has had active third party movements. The Reform Party was able to elect the former mayor of Brooklyn Park , and former professional wrestler , Jesse Ventura to the governorship in 1998 . The state's Green Party has elected several city council members and other local office-holders in Duluth, Minneapolis and Winona, and has made strong runs for state legislature during the past two election cycles. In 2000, Green Party candidate Ralph Nader received just over 5% of the presidential votes cast, gaining Major Party status for the Green Party of Minnesota.

See also: List of political parties in Minnesota and United presidential election, 2004, in Minnesota


The Twin Cities area is the 15 th largest media market in the United as ranked by Nielsen Media Research . The state's other top 210 media markets are Fargo-Moorhead (118 th ), Duluth-Superior (137 th ), Rochester-Mason City-Austin (152 nd ), and Mankato (200 th ). [31]

Broadcast television in Minnesota, and the Upper Midwest, started on April 27th , 1948 when KSTP-TV began broadcasting. [32] Hubbard Broadcasting Corporation which owns KSTP is now the only locally owned television company in Minnesota. There are currently 39 analog broadcast stations and 23 digital channels broadcast all over Minnesota.

The Twin Cities metro area has the state's two largest newspapers: the Star Tribune in Minneapolis and the Saint Paul Pioneer Press . A number of other weekly and monthly publications (most of which are fully supported by advertising ) are also available. The most prominent of these is City Pages , the alternative weekly, with 2002 newcomer The Rake offering some competition in the form of a free monthly.

Two of the largest public radio networks are based in Minnesota, Minnesota Public Radio (MPR) and Public Radio International (PRI). MPR has the largest audience of any regional public radio network, while PRI provides more than 400 hours of programming to affiliates across the United . [33] [34]



Main article: Sports in Minnesota Minnesota has a team in all four major professional leagues ( MLB , NFL , NBA , and NHL ), and the University of Minnesota is part of the oldest functioning major college conference ( Big Ten ).

Club Sport League Venue Championships Minnesota Twins


Major League Baseball ; AL

Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome

World Series : 1987 , 1991

Minnesota Vikings

American football

National Football League ; NFC

Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome


Minnesota Timberwolves


National Basketball Association ; Western

Target Center


Minnesota Wild

Ice Hockey

National Hockey League ; Western

Xcel Energy Center


Minnesota Golden Gophers


National Collegiate Athletic Association ; Big Ten Conference ( WCHA (Hockey only))

List of Gophers Facilities

List of Gophers National Titles

Minnesota Swarm

Indoor lacrosse

National Lacrosse League ; Eastern Division

Xcel Energy Center


Minnesota Lynx


Women's National Basketball Association ; Western

Target Center


Minnesota Vixen

American Football

Women's Professional Football League ; National Conference

Hamline University's Klas Field


Saint Paul Saints


American Association ; North Division

Midway Stadium

Northern League Championship : 1993, 1995, 1996, 2004

Fargo-Moorhead Redhawks


Northern League ; West Division

Newman Outdoor Field

Northern League Championship : 1998, 2003

Minnesota Thunder


USL First Division

James Griffin Stadium


Minnesota Lightning


W-League ; Central Conference

University of Minnesota's Elizabeth Lyle Robbie Stadium


Two other nationally prominent sports teams were formerly located in Minnesota. The Los Angeles Lakers of the NBA played as the Minneapolis Lakers from 1947 to 1960. The Dallas Stars of the NHL played as the Minnesota North Stars from 1967 to 1993. The departure of the Stars was seen as fairly catastrophic to the state as hockey has historically been identified with Minnesota. However, attendance for the Stars had declined significantly through the mid-nineties. Today, the NHL has returned, helping rejuvenate state pride in hockey (the Wild have sold out every game in existence).


State symbols

State Symbols State bird

Common Loon

State butterfly


State beverage


State fish


State flower

Pink and White Showy Lady Slipper

State fruit

Honeycrisp apple (developed at the University of Minnesota)

State gemstone

Lake Superior agate

State grain

Wild rice

Territory Motto (actual)

Quo sursum velo videre ("I cover to see what is above" is the closest translation)

Territory Motto (intended)

Quae sursum volo videre ("I wish to see what is beyond")

State motto

L'Étoile du Nord ("Star of the North")

State muffin

Blueberry (adopted as part of a school project on how a bill becomes law) [35]

State mushroom

Morel (sponge mushroom; honeycomb morel)

State photograph

Grace [36]

State reptile

Blanding's Turtle

State song

" Hail! Minnesota "

State tree

Norway Pine


"Land of 10,000 Lakes"


"North Star State"


"Gopher State"


"Land of Sky-Blue Waters"


"Bread and Butter State"


See also

List of people from Minnesota

List of Minnesota fish

List of naval ships named for Minnesota

Music of Minnesota

Scouting in Minnesota





Cited references

^ MNHS Minnesota Place names Accessed 06/29/06

^ Minnesota definition at Accessed 07/06/2006

^ facts and figures Accessed 06/22/2006

^ Minnesota and United Climate Extremes Retrieved 06/22/06

^ Lakes, rivers & wetlands facts Accessed 06/22/06

^ Population in Metropolitan Statistical Areas Ranked by 2000 Census Accessed 08/16/2006

^ 2001PopulationHouseholdEstimates.pdf Accessed 07/26/2006. 2000 census total for the Twin Cities is 2,642,062, total for the state is 4,919,479, which gives 53.706 percent

^ a b Minnesota QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau Retrieved 06/22/06

^ Minnesota - Selected Social Characteristics . U.S. Census Bureau (2004). Retrieved on 2006 - 07-14 .

^ Minnesota Population Projections by Race and Hispanic Origin Accessed 08/14/06


^ Minnesota - DP-1. Profile of General Demographic Characteristics Accessed 07/26/2006

^ American Religious Identification Survey . The Graduate Center, City University of New York. Accessed 07/22/06

^ Bureau of Economic Analysis: Regional Economic Accounts Retrieved 06/22/06

^ Wind Energy Projects Throughout the United of America Accessed 06/22/2006

^ Sales tax fact sheets Accessed 06/22/2006

^ Minn Stat 297A.61 Subd 33 Accessed 06/22/06

^ Managing for Results Page 19, Accessed 06/26/06

^ Smartest State Award Accessed 07/24/2006

^ Statemaster Education Statistics High school diploma or higher Accessed 08/16/2006

^ University of Minnesota Medical Milestones Accessed 08/14/2006

^ Minnesota Partnership for Biotechnology and Medical Genomics Accessed 08/14/2006

^ Statemaster Health Statistics Physical Exercise by State Accessed 08/16/2006

^ America's Health Rankings 2005 Accessed 08/16/2006

^ Explore Minnesota Living Accessed 08/16/2006

^ Statemaster Health Statistics > Death Rate per 100,000 Accessed 08/16/2006

^ Statemaster Minnesota Health Statistics Accessed 08/16/2006

^ WebMD Minnesota Ranked Healthiest State December 12,2005 Accessed 08/16/2006

^ Statemaster Health Statistics Health Index by state Accessed 08/16/2006

^ United Elections Project Retrieved 06/22/06

^ Accessed 07/23/2006

^ Accessed 07/23/2006

^ PRI factsheet Accessed August 17th, 2006

^ About MPR Accessed August 17th, 2006

^ Minnesota State Government Series: State Symbols (pdf). Retrieved on 2006 - 07-11 .

^ Minnesota Statute § 1.1498 Accessed 15 August 2006



General references

Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition see also Minnesota article in Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition

State of Minnesota Website






State of Minnesota Official site

Minnesota State Legislature

Minnesota Judicial Branch

Hyperlinked state constitution

Full text of state constitution


Tourism & recreation

Explore Minnesota Official Tourism site

Minnesota Department of Natural Resources

Minnesota DNR Outdoor Activites

Minnesota Zoo

Science Museum of Minnesota


Culture & history

Minnesota Historical Society

Minnesota history timeline

Minnesota Historical Society's online timeline

A History of Minneapolis: Early History: Resources

Minnesota Historical Society

Minnesota Place Names

Forests, Fields, and the Falls: Connecting Minnesota


Maps and Demographics

Minnesota Demographics Facts

Minnesota State Highway Map

Perry-Castañeda Library Map Collection

John R. Borchert Map Library

Minnesota Geological Survey



State of Minnesota
Cities | Townships | Governors | Colleges and Universities | State Parks

Capital Saint Paul


Regions Minneapolis/Saint Paul metropolitan area | Outstate | Northwest Angle | Iron Range | Arrowhead | Pipestone | Central | Southeast


Major Cities Bloomington | Duluth | Minneapolis | Rochester | St. Cloud | Saint Paul


Smaller Cities Albert Lea | Alexandria | Anoka | Apple Valley | Austin | Bemidji | Blaine | Brainerd | Brooklyn Center | Brooklyn Park | Burnsville | Coon Rapids | Cottage Grove | Eagan | Eden Prairie | Edina | Faribault | Fridley | Hibbing | Inver Grove Heights | Lakeville | Mankato | Maple Grove | Maplewood | Minnetonka | Moorhead | Owatonna | Plymouth | Red Wing | Richfield | Roseville | St. Louis Park | St. Peter | Shakopee | Stillwater | White Bear Lake | Willmar | Winona | Woodbury


Counties Aitkin | Anoka | Becker | Beltrami | Benton | Big Stone | Blue Earth | Brown | Carlton | Carver | Cass | Chippewa | Chisago | Clay | Clearwater | Cook | Cottonwood | Crow Wing | Dakota | Dodge | Douglas | Faribault | Fillmore | Freeborn | Goodhue | Grant | Hennepin | Houston | Hubbard | Isanti | Itasca | Jackson | Kanabec | Kandiyohi | Kittson | Koochiching | Lac qui Parle | Lake | Lake of the Woods | Le Sueur | Lincoln | Lyon | McLeod | Mahnomen | Marshall | Martin | Meeker | Mille Lacs | Morrison | Mower | Murray | Nicollet | Nobles | Norman | Olmsted | Otter Tail | Pennington | Pine | Pipestone | Polk | Pope | Ramsey | Red Lake | Redwood | Renville | Rice | Rock | Roseau | St. Louis | Scott | Sherburne | Sibley | Stearns | Steele | Stevens | Swift | Todd | Traverse | Wabasha | Wadena | Waseca | Washington | Watonwan | Wilkin | Winona | Wright | Yellow Medicine