Pharmacy Shelving



Pharmacy Shelving Texas
Pharmacy Shelving
Pharmacy Shelving
Pharmacy Shelving  

Fort Worth, TX
The Wills Ranch
is a top quality Pharmacy boarding facility located on Hwy 377 South, Fort Worth, TX. between Benbrook and Cresson, only 20 minutes from downtown Fort Worth. On-site managers, electric gate entrance, peace of mind.  Amenities include a 300ft. x 128ft. indoor arena facility, outdoor round pen, large stalls, some stalls w/runs, stalls in self-care barn have runs, turn-out pastures, private paddocks, 3 ponds, wooded creek, mowed pastures. Call Deb, 817-443-0563.

Dallas, TX

Abilene Addison Aledo Alice Alief Allen Alpine Alvarado Alvin Amarillo Anahuac Andrews Angleton Aransas Pass Arlington Athens Atlanta Austin Azle
Bandera Barker Bastrop Bay City Baytown Beaumont Bedford Beeville Bellaire Bellville Belton Big Spring Boerne Bonham Borger Bowie Brady Brazoria Breckenridge Brenham Bridge City Bridgeport Brookshire Brownfield Brownsville Brownwood Bryan Buda Buffalo Bulverde Burkburnett Burleson Burnet
Caldwell Cameron Canadian Canton Canyon Canyon Lake Carrizo Springs Carrollton Carthage Cedar Hill Cedar Park Center Channelview Childress Clarksville Cleburne Cleveland Clifton Clute Coldspring Coleman College Station Colleyville Columbus Comanche Comfort Commerce Conroe Coppell Copperas Cove Corpus Christi Corsicana Crockett Crosby Crowley Crp Christi Crystal City Cuero Cypress
Dalhart Dayton Decatur Deer Park Del Rio Denison Denton Denver City Desoto Devine Dickinson Dimmitt Donna Dripping Springs Dumas Duncanville
Eagle Pass Eastland Edinburg Edna El Campo El Paso Elgin Ennis Euless
Fairfield Falfurrias Floresville Flower Mound Forney Fort Stockton Frankston Fredericksburg Freeport Friendswood Frisco
Gainesville Galveston Garland Gatesville Georgetown Giddings Gilmer Gladewater Glen Rose Gonzales Graham Granbury Grand Prairie Grapevine Greenville Groesbeck Groves
Hallettsville Haltom City Hamilton Harker Heights Harlingen Hearne Helotes Hemphill Hempstead Henderson Hereford Hidalgo Hillsboro Hitchcock Hondo Houston Humble Huntsville Hurst
Ingram Irving
Jacksboro Jacksonville Jasper Jefferson Justin
Katy Kaufman Keller Kemah Kemp Kennedale Kermit Kerrville Kilgore Killeen Kingsland Kingsville Kountze Kyle
La Grange La Marque La Porte Lake Dallas Lake Jackson Lamesa Lampasas Lancaster Laredo League City Leander Levelland Lewisville Liberty Lindale Littlefield Livingston Llano Lockhart Longview Lubbock Lufkin Luling Lumberton
Mabank Madisonville Magnolia Manchaca Mansfield Manvel Marble Falls Marlin Marshall Mathis Mc Kinney McAllen Mercedes Mesquite Mexia Midland Midlothian Mineola Mineral Wells Mission Missouri City Monahans Montgomery Mount Pleasant Mount Vernon Muleshoe
Nacogdoches Navasota Nederland Needville New Boston New Braunfels Nocona North Richland Hills
Odessa Orange
Palestine Pampa Paris Pasadena Pearland Pearsall Pecos Perryton Pflugerville Pharr Pinehurst Pittsburg Plainview Plano Pleasanton Port Aransas Port Arthur Port Isabel Port Lavaca Port Neches Porter Portland Post
Quinlan Quitman
Raymondville Red Oak Refugio Richardson Richmond Rio Grande City Roanoke Robstown Rockdale Rockport Rockwall Rosenberg Round Rock Rowlett Rusk
San Angelo San Antonio San Augustine San Benito San Juan San Marcos San Saba Sanger Santa Fe Schertz Schulenburg Seabrook Seagoville Sealy Seguin Seminole Sherman Silsbee Sinton Slaton Smithville Snyder Sonora South Houston South Padre Island Southlake Spearman Splendora Spring Spring Branch Stafford Stephenville Sugar Land Sulphur Springs Sunnyvale Sweetwater
Taylor Temple Terrell Texarkana Texas City The Colony Tomball Trinity Tulia Tyler
Universal City Uvalde
Vernon Victoria Vidor
Waco Waller Waxahachie Weatherford Webster Weslaco West Columbia Wharton Whitehouse Whitney Wichita Falls Willis Wills Point Wimberley Winnie Winnsboro Woodville Woodway Wylie

Texas is a state in both the Southern and Western region of the United of America . The state name derives from a word in the Caddoan language of the Hasinai : táysha ? , tecas , or tejas (Spanish spelling); meaning "those who are friends," "friends," or "allies". [1]

Texas declared its independence from Mexico in 1836 and existed as the independent Republic of Texas for nearly a decade. It joined the United in 1845 as the 28th state. With an area of 268,581 square miles ( 695,622 km² ) and a population of 22.8 million, Texas is second to Alaska in area, and second to California in population.


[ hide ] 1 History 1.1 European and American settlement

1.2 War for Independence

1.3 Annexation and Statehood

1.4 Civil War

1.5 Reconstruction and New South: 1865–1913

1.6 Texas in Prosperity, Depression, and War: 1914–1945

1.7 Texas modernizes: 1945—



2 Geography 2.1 Geology

2.2 Climate



3 Law and government 3.1 State law and government

3.2 County government

3.3 Municipal government

3.4 School and special districts

3.5 Politics

3.6 Law enforcement

3.7 Military

3.8 Congressional districts



4 Economy

5 Demographics 5.1 Race and ethnic origins



6 Culture 6.1 Arts and theatre

6.2 Sports



7 Cities and metropolitan areas 7.1 Largest cities

7.2 Largest metropolitan areas



8 Transportation 8.1 Highways

8.2 Airports

8.3 Mass transportation



9 Education and research 9.1 Healthcare and scientific research

9.2 Colleges and universities

9.3 Primary and secondary education



10 Miscellany 10.1 Ships

10.2 Official designations and symbols[24]

10.3 Other state designations



11 See also

12 Further reading 12.1 Surveys

12.2 Specialized Studies

12.3 Pre 1865

12.4 Since 1865



13 Notes




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History of Texas Spanish Texas

Mexican Texas

Republic of Texas

State of Texas

Main article: History of Texas Texas boasts that " Six Flags " have flown over its soil: the Fleur-de-lis of France , and the national flags of Spain , Mexico , the Republic of Texas , the United of America and the Confederate of America .

Native American tribes who once lived inside the boundaries of present-day Texas include Apache , Atakapan , Bidai, Caddo , Comanche , Cherokee , Kiowa , Tonkawa , Wichita , and Karankawa of Galveston . Currently, there are three federally recognized Native American tribes which reside in Texas: the Alabama-Coushatta Tribe of Texas, the Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas, and the Ysleta Del Sur Pueblo of Texas.


European and American settlement

On November 6 , 1528 , shipwrecked Spanish conquistador Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca became the first known European in Texas; in 1537 , he wrote about his experiences in a work called La relación ("The Relation").

Stephen . Austin Prior to 1821 , Texas was part of the Spanish dominions of New Spain . Moses Austin bought 200,000 acres (800 km²) of land of his choice. In 1821, Texas became part of Mexico and in 1824 became the northern section of Coahuila y Tejas . On January 3 , 1823 , Stephen F. Austin began a colony of 300 American families along the Brazos River . This group became known as the "Old Three Hundred." The "Conventions" of 1832 and 1833 responded to rising unrest at the policies of the ruling Mexican government.


War for Independence

In 1835 , Antonio López de Santa Anna , President of Mexico , proclaimed a unified constitution for all Mexican territories, including Texas. North American settlers in Texas announced they intended to secede from Mexico rather than be forced to the new Mexican constitution and instead, asked for consideration under the original 1824 Mexican Constitution which allowed: freedom of religion, freedom of thought and the press and also enslavement, which Mexico had abolished under this new constitution. Other policies that irritated the Texans included the forcible disarmament of Texan settlers, and the expulsion of immigrants and legal land owners originally from the United . The example of the Centralista forces' suppression of dissidents in Zacatecas also inspired fear of the Mexican government.

Republic of Texas. The present-day outlines of the U.S. are superimposed on the boundaries of 1836–1845 On March 2 , 1836 , the Convention of 1836 signed the Texas "Declaration of Independence," declaring Texas an independent nation. On April 21 , 1836 , the Texans won their independence when they defeated the Mexican forces of Santa Anna at the Battle of San Jacinto . A factor in the defeat of Santa Anna's army at San Jacinto was the time the Texas Army got to gather itself, thanks to a small group of defenders at The Alamo and General Sam Houston 's strategy of giving up land until he had rallied an army. Santa Anna was captured and signed the Treaties of Velasco , which gave Texas firm boundaries; Mexico repudiated the treaties, considered Texas a breakaway province, and vowed to reconquer it. However the Mexican political system was so unstable that it was never able to make good on its threats. Later in 1836 , the Texans adopted a constitution that formally legalized slavery in Texas. The Republic of Texas included all the area now included in the state of Texas, and additional unoccupied territory to the west and northwest.


Annexation and Statehood

Texans strongly wanted annexation to the United . Mexico threatened war if this happened. Great Britain tried to maintain Texas independence (as a counterweight to the United ), maintained a Texas Embassy in London, and tried to convince Mexico to stop threatening war. Texas was fast-growing and quite wealthy, and quite capable of protecting itself by the mid 1840s. However, American politics intruded; strong Northern opposition to adding another slave state blocked annexation until the election of 1844 was won on a pro-annexation platform by James K. Polk . In 1845 , Texas was admitted to the United as a constituent state of the Union. War with Mexico followed, with decisive American victories. Texas grew rapidly as migrants poured into the rich cotton lands.


Civil War

During the American Civil War , Texas seceded from the United on February 1 , 1861 and joined the Confederate of America March 2 , 1861 . Texas was most useful for supplying hardy soldiers for Confederate forces (veterans of the Mexican War), and in cavalry. As a whole, Texas was mainly a "supply state" for the Confederate forces until mid 1863, when the Union capture of the Mississippi River made large movements of men or cattle impossible. Texas regiments fought in every major battle throughout the war.

The last battle of the Civil War, the Battle of Palmito Ranch , was fought in Texas, on May 12 , 1865 , well after Lee's surrender on April 9 , 1865 at Appomattox Court House , Virginia . Texas descended into near-anarchy during the two months between the surrender of the Army of Northern Virginia and the assumption of authority by (Union) General Gordon Granger , as Confederate forces demobilized or disbanded and government property passed into private hands through distribution or plunder.


Reconstruction and New South: 1865–1913

Juneteenth commemorates the announcement of the Emancipation Proclamation on June 19 , 1865 in Galveston , Texas, by General Gordon Granger; nearly 1-1/2 years after the original announcement of January 1 , 1863 . On March 30 , 1870 although Texas did not meet all the requirements, the United Congress readmitted Texas into the Union .


Texas in Prosperity, Depression, and War: 1914–1945

The first major oil well in Texas was drilled at Spindletop , the little hill south of Beaumont , on the morning of January 10 , 1901 . Other oil fields were later discovered nearby in East Texas , in West Texas and under the Gulf of Mexico . The resulting “Oil Boom” permanently transformed the economy of Texas. Oil production averaged three million barrels of oil per day at its peak. [ citation needed ]

The economy, which had experienced significant recovery since the Civil War, was dealt a double blow by the Great Depression and the Dust Bowl .

Immediately preceding and during WWII , existing military bases in Texas were expanded and numerous new training bases were built, especially for Naval and Military Aviation training. Many Americans and allied troops (including Free French Air Forces) came to Texas as part of the military mobilization.


Texas modernizes: 1945—

From 1950 through the 1960s, Texas modernized and dramatically expanded its system of higher education. Under the leadership of Governor John B. Connally , the state produced a long-range plan for higher education, a more rational distribution of resources, and a central state apparatus that managed state institutions with greater efficiency. Because of these changes, Texas universities received federal funds for research and development during the John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson administrations.[Blanton 2005]



Main article: Geography of Texas Texas Hill Country The geography of Texas spans a wide range of features and timelines. Texas is the southernmost part of the Great Plains , which ends in the south against the folded Sierra Madre Oriental of Mexico. It is in the south-central part of the United of America. It is considered to form part of the U.S. South and also part of the U.S. Southwest .

The Rio Grande , Red River and Sabine River all provide natural state lines where Texas borders Oklahoma on the north, Louisiana and Arkansas on the east, and New Mexico and the Mexican of Chihuahua , Coahuila , Nuevo León , and Tamaulipas to the south.

Rio Grande Valley By residents, the state is generally divided into North Texas , East Texas , South Texas , and West Texas , but according to the Texas Almanac , Texas has four major physical regions: Gulf Coastal Plains , Interior Lowlands , Great Plains , and The Basin and Range Province . This is the difference between human geography and physical geography .

Some regions of Texas are associated with the South more than the Southwest (primarily East Texas and North Texas ), while other regions share more similarities with the Southwest than the South (primarily West Texas and South Texas ). Even the northwestern part of the state seems to have more in common with parts of the United (Kansas and Nebraska) that are considered " midwestern " and never "southern". The size of Texas prohibits easy categorization of the entire state wholly in any recognized region of the United ; geographic, economic, and even cultural diversity between regions of the state preclude treating Texas as a region in its own right.


Main article: Geology of Texas Shaded Relief Map of the Llano Estacado . Texas is the southernmost part of the Great Plains , which ends in the south against the folded Sierra Madre Oriental of Mexico. It is mostly sedimentary rocks , with east Texas underlain by a Cretaceous and younger sequence of sediments, the trace of ancient shorelines east and south until the active continental margin of the Gulf of Mexico is met. This sequence is built atop the subsided crest of the Appalachian Mountains – Ouachita Mountains –Marathon Mountains zone of Pennsylvanian continental collision , which collapsed when rifting in Jurassic time opened the Gulf of Mexico. West from this orogenic crest, which is buried beneath the Dallas – Waco – Austin – San Antonio trend, the sediments are Permian and Triassic in age. Oil is found in the Cretaceous sediments in the east, the Permian sediments in the west, and along the Gulf coast and out on the Texas continental shelf . A few exposures of Precambrian igneous and metamorphic rocks are found in the central and western parts of the state, and Oligocene volcanic rocks are found in far west Texas, in the Big Bend area. A blanket of Miocene sediments known as the Ogallala formation in the western high plains region is an important aquifer . Texas has no active or dormant volcanoes and few earthquakes, being situated far from an active plate tectonic boundary. (The Big Bend area is the most seismically active; however, the area is sparsely populated and suffers minimal damages and injuries, and no known fatalities have been attributed to a Texas earthquake.)



The large size of Texas and its location at the insection of several climate zones gives the state highly variable weather. Tornadoes often occur in the months of March-July throughout the state. The Panhandle of the state is cooler in the winter than North Texas or the gulf coast. Different regions of Texas experience vastly different precipitation patterns: El Paso averages as little as 7.8" of rain per year while the average annual precipitation is 59" in Orange, Texas . [2] Moderate snowfall often falls in the winter months in the north. Maximum temperatures in the summer months average from the 80s °F in the mountains of West Texas and on Galveston Island to around 100 °F in the Rio Grande Valley . Nighttime summer temperatures range from the upper 50s °F in the West Texas mountains [3] to 80 °F in Galveston . [4]


Law and government

Main article: Texas state government

State law and government

Texas State Capitol Republican Rick Perry has served as Governor of Texas since December 2000, when George W. Bush vacated the office to assume the Presidency . Two Republicans represent Texas in the U.S. Senate: Kay Bailey Hutchison (since 1993) and John Cornyn (since 2002). Texas has 32 representatives in the U.S. House of Representatives: 21 Republicans and 11 Democrats.

The Texas Constitution , adopted in 1876, is the second oldest state constitution still in effect. As with many state constitutions , it explicitly provides for the separation of powers and incorporates its bill of rights directly into the text of the constitution (as Article I). The bill of rights is considerably lengthier and more detailed than the federal Bill of Rights , and includes some provisions unique to Texas.

The executive branch consists of the Governor, Lieutenant Governor , Comptroller of Public Accounts, Land Commissioner, Attorney General, Agriculture Commissioner, the three-member Texas Railroad Commission , the State Board of Education, and the Secretary of State. The comptroller decides if expected state income is sufficient to cover the proposed state budget. Except for the secretary of state—who is appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of the Senate—each of these officials is elected (the three Railroad Commission members are voted at-large; the State Board of Education members are voted in single-member districts). There are also many state agencies and numerous boards and commissions. Partly because of many elected officials, the governor's powers are quite limited in comparison to other state governors or the U.S. President. In popular lore and belief the lieutenant governor, who heads the Senate and appoints its committees, has more power than the governor. The governor commands the state militia and can veto bills passed by the Legislature and call special sessions of the Legislature (this power is exclusive to the governor and can be exercised as often as desired). The governor also appoints members of various executive boards and fills judicial vacancies between elections.

The Legislature of Texas , like the legislature of every other state except Nebraska , is bicameral (that is, it has two chambers). The House of Representatives has 150 members, while the Senate has 31. The speaker of the house, currently Tom Craddick ( R - Midland ) leads the House, and the lieutenant governor (currently Republican David Dewhurst ) leads the state Senate. The Legislature meets in regular session only once every two years. The Legislature cannot call itself into special session; only the governor may call a special session, and may call as many sessions as often as desired.

The judicial system of Texas has a reputation as one of the most complex in the United , with many layers and many overlapping jurisdictions. Texas has two courts of last resort: the Texas Supreme Court , which hears civil cases, and the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals . Except in the case of some municipal benches, partisan elections choose all of the judges at all levels of the judiciary; the governor fills vacancies by appointment.


County government

Hays County Courthouse Texas has a total of 254 counties , by far the most counties of any state. Each county is run by a commissioners court consisting of four elected commissioners (one from each of four precincts drawn based on population) and a county judge elected from all the voters of the county. The county judge does not have authority to veto a decision of the commissioners court; the judge votes along with the commissioners. In smaller counties, the county judge actually does perform judicial duties, but in larger counties the judge's role is limited to serving on the commissioners court. Certain officials, such as the sheriff and tax collector, are elected separately by the voters and state law specifies their salaries, but the commissioners court determines their office budgets. All county elections are partisan .

Unlike other , Texas does not allow for consolidated city-county governments. Cities and counties (as well as other political entities) are permitted to enter "interlocal agreements" to share services (as an example, a city and a school district may enter into agreements with the county whereby the county bills for and collects property taxes for the city and school district; thus, only one tax bill is sent instead of three).

See also: List of Texas counties

Municipal government

Texas does not have townships—areas within a county are either incorporated or unincorporated. Incorporated areas are part of a city, though the city may contract with the county for needed services. Unincorporated areas are not part of a city; in these areas the county has authority for law enforcement and road maintenance.

Cities are classified as either "general law" or "home rule". A city may elect home rule status (draft an independent city charter) once it exceeds 5,000 population and the voters agree to home rule. Otherwise, it is classified as general law and has very limited powers.

Municipal elections in Texas are nonpartisan in the sense that candidates do not appear on the ballot on party lines, and do not run as party tickets. However, a candidate's party affiliation is usually known or can be discerned with minimal effort (as the candidate most likely has supported other candidates on partisan tickets). In some instances, an informal citizen's group will support a slate of candidates that it desires to see elected (often in opposition to an incumbent group with which it disagreed on an issue). However, each candidate must be voted on individually.


School and special districts

The Hattie Mae White Administration Building of the Houston Independent School District ; Houston ISD is the largest school district in the state of Texas. In addition to cities and counties, Texas has numerous special districts. The most common is the independent school district , which (with one exception) has a board of trustees that is independent of any other governing authority. School district boundaries are not generally aligned with city or county boundaries; it is common for a school district to cover one or more counties or for a large city to be served by several school districts.

Other special districts include Groundwater Conservation Districts (regulatory agencies), river authorities, water supply districts (for irrigation or municipal supply), public hospitals, road districts, and community colleges.

As with municipal elections in Texas, board members or trustees are elected on a nonpartisan basis or may be appointed.



Main article: Politics of Texas Regardless of party affiliation, Texas politics are dominated by fiscal and social conservatism.

The Texan political climate is currently dominated by the Republican Party , which has strong majorities in the Texas Senate and House of Representatives. Every executive branch official elected statewide is Republican, as is every member of Texas's two courts of last resort; no Democrat has won a statewide election since 1994. The majority of the state's delegation to the U.S. House of Representatives is Republican, as are both U.S. Senators. A notable exception to this trend is the Travis County District Attorney, Ronnie Earle , a Democrat elected by the people of Austin who has served since 1978 with statewide authority and responsibility for legally prosecuting political mischief. Ronnie Earle is nationally known for leveling charges against Senator Kay Bailey Hutchinson, which were dismissed in court, and against Representative Tom DeLay, which have not yet been resolved. The Travis County District Attorney is uniquely empowered by the Texas Constitution; most grant this authority to the more broadly elected position of Attorney General .

Note: The congressional districts in Texas were redrawn in 2003 by the Republican-dominated legislature. Districts are usually drawn after the national census every 10 years, but an impasse in the Texas Legislature resulted in the districts being drawn by the courts in 2001. The legislature, with controversial help from U.S. Congressman Tom DeLay, redrew the districts after the Republicans gained a larger share of the legislature. A court challenge to the legality of the non-Census-timed redistricting was upheld by the Republican-dominated Texas Supreme Court; the United Supreme Court remanded the map to a three-judge federal panel to redraw the 23rd District, which it ruled unconstitutionally diluted Hispanic voting strength in violation of the Voting Rights Act . The court otherwise upheld the rest of the districts on the map in question and noted that after a map meets all legal rules and laws, one drawn by the state's elected officials is prefered over one drawn by federal judges. The Democratic challengers of the map had pointed to an early 1990's map drawn by federal judges as one that should be kept in use.

Like other Southern , Texas historically was a one-party state of the Democratic Party . The Democrats controlled a majority in the Texas House and in the state's Congressional delegation until the 2002 and 2004 elections, respectively. One of the most famous Texans was a Democrat: Lyndon Baines Johnson served in the U.S. House of Representatives , the U.S. Senate , and as vice-president and president of the United . Another famous Texas Democrat was longtime speaker of the House, Sam Rayburn .


Law enforcement

The justice system in Texas has a reputation for strict sentencing. According to the Prison Policy Initiative, of the 21 counties in the United where more than a fifth of the residents are prison inmates, 10 are in Texas.

Texas leads the nation in executions by far, with 366 executions from 1976 to 2006. The second-highest ranking state is Virginia , with 94. Only capital murder (equivalent to such terms as "murder with malice aforethought" in other ) is eligible for the death penalty. Prior to 2005, the alternate sentence was life with the possibility of parole after 40 calendar years; a 2005 law change changed the alternate sentence to life without parole.

A 2002 Houston Chronicle poll of Texans found that when asked "Do you support the death penalty?", 69.1 percent responded that they did, 21.9 percent did not support, and 9.1 percent were not sure or gave no answer.

Well-known for their role in the history of Texas law enforcement, the Texas Rangers continue today to provide special law enforcement services to the state.

See also: Capital punishment in Texas


Texas is home to numerous major military installations, with bases in nearly every corner of the state. All the services have operational and training missions in Texas, despite the lack of a major United Marine Corps installation. In addition to active duty forces, there are a wide variety of reserve units and guard units. The guard units are collectively known as the "Texas Military Forces."

The Texas Military Forces includes the Texas Army National Guard and the Texas Air National Guard and the Texas State Guard , the state militia. The headquarters of the Texas Military Forces is at Camp Mabry in Austin .


Congressional districts

Texas's congressional districts 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32
See also: Current Texas delegation - Past & present Texas delegations - Texas government category
United congressional districts - Congressional apportionment - Redistricting - Gerrymandering



Main article: Economy of Texas Cotton harvesting in Texas In 2005 Texas had a gross state product of $982.4 billion, the second highest in America after California . [5] Gross state product per capita as of 2005 was $42,899. Texas's growth is often attributed to the availability of jobs, the low cost of housing (housing values in the Dallas and Houston areas, while generally rising, have not risen at the astronomical rates of other cities such as San Francisco), the lack of a personal state income tax , low taxation and limited regulation of business , a geographic location in the center of the country, limited government (the Texas Legislature meets only once every two years), favorable climate in many areas of the state, and vast, plentiful supplies of oil and natural gas. Texas has 4.6 billion barrels of proven crude oil reserves. [6]

Texas remained largely rural until World War II , with cattle ranching , oil, and agriculture as its main industries. Cattle ranching (though important) was never Texas's chief industry – before the oil boom back to the period of the first Anglo settlers, the chief industry was cotton farming (as in most of the South).

In 1926 , San Antonio had over 120,000 people, the largest population of any city in Texas. After World War II , Texas became increasingly industrialized. Its economy today relies largely on information technology, oil and natural gas, fuel processing, electric power, agriculture, and manufacturing. The major segment of the economy depends largely on the region involved – for example, the timber industry is a major portion of the East Texas economy but a non-factor elsewhere, while aerospace and defense manufacturing is primarily centered within the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex .

The state has two major economic centers: Dallas and Houston . Houston stands at the center of the petrochemical and biomedical research trades while Dallas functions as the center of the aerospace/defense manufacturing and information technology labor market in Texas. Other major cities include San Antonio , Austin , Brownsville , Lubbock , Amarillo , Abilene , Bryan-College Station , Beaumont , McAllen , Tyler , Odessa and Midland . Other important cities include Killeen (home to Fort Hood , the largest military post in the U.S.) and the cities of El Paso , Eagle Pass , and Laredo (these have particular significance due to their location on the border with Mexico, making them important trade points).

As of 2006 , Texas, for the first time, has more Fortune 500 company headquarters (56) than any other state (California has 55; ironically, it was due to the move of Fluor from California to Texas). This has been attributed to both the growth in population in Texas and the rise of oil prices in 2005, which resulted in the growth in revenues of many Texas oil drilling and processing companies.

Port of Houston Texas is the largest international exporter among the 50 American , with international merchandise exports totaling $117.2 Billion in 2004. [7] In 2002, the Port of Houston was 6th among the top sea ports in the world in terms of total cargo volume [8] ; Air Cargo World rated Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport as "the best air cargo airport in the world". [9]

Texans pride themselves in a history of tradition, yet they seek new social and technological developments also. Round Rock is the headquarters of Dell and the surrounding area is known as "Silicon Hills". Dallas is a famously cosmopolitan metropolis and the birthplace of the integrated circuit , Houston is a global leader in the energy industry. The cultures of San Antonio and El Paso retain their Mexican heritage while Fort Worth maintains its western heritage. With a nod to its diversity and its past as a former sovereign nation, the state tourism slogan is "Texas: It's like a whole other country.®" (The slogan is used only in domestic advertising, a different slogan is used for marketing to Latin American countries.)

Texas is one of the top filmmaking in the United , just after California and New York . In the past 10 years alone (1995-2004), more than $2.75 billion has been spent in Texas for film and television production. The Texas Film Commission was founded for free services to filmmakers, from location research to traveling. [10]

Since 2003, Texas state officials have been committed to developing the economy of Texas with various initiatives such as the Texas Enterprise Fund and the Texas Emerging Technology Fund , which invest money into developing Texas business.



Texas Population Density Map Historical populations Census
year Population

































As of 2005, the state has an estimated population of 22.8 milion—an increase of 388,419 (1.7%) from the prior year and an increase of 2 million (9.6%) since the year 2000. In all three subcategories—natural (births less deaths), net immigration, and net migration—Texas has seen an increase in population. The natural increase since the last census was 1,155,182 people (1,948,398 births minus 793,216 deaths), immigration from outside the United resulted in a net increase of 663,161 people, and migration within the country produced a net increase of 218,722 people. The state passed New York in the 1990s to become the second-largest U.S. state in population (after California ).

As of 2004, the state has 3.5 million foreign-born residents (15.6 percent of the state population), of which an estimated 1.2 million are illegal aliens (illegal aliens account for more than one-third of the foreign-born population in Texas and 5.4 percent of the total state population [ citation needed ] ).

Census data reports 7.8 percent of Texas's population as under 5, 28.2 percent under 18, and 9.9 percent over 64 years. Females made up 50.4 percent of the population.


Race and ethnic origins

The largest reported ancestry groups in Texas include: Mexican (24.3%), African American (11.5%), German-American (9.9%), Anglo American (7.2%), and Scots-Irish American (7.2%). Descent from some of these ancestry groups is underreported.

Much of east, central, and north Texas is inhabited by Texans of White Protestant heritage— primarily descended from ancestors from the British Isles . African Americans, who historically made up one-third of the state population, are concentrated in those parts of East Texas where the cotton plantation culture was most prominent prior to the Civil War , as well as in the Dallas-Fort Worth and Houston metropolitan areas.

Other population groups in Texas also exhibit great diversity. Frontier Texas saw settlements of Germans , particularly in Fredericksburg and New Braunfels . In fact, the largest family in Texas today is of German descent. After the European revolutions of 1848 , German, Polish , Swedish , Norwegian , Czech and French immigration grew, and continued until World War I . The influence of the diverse immigrants from Europe survives in the names of towns, styles of architecture, genres of music, and varieties of cuisine. Texans of German descent dominate much of central and southeast-central Texas and one county in the area, Lavaca County , is predominantly Czech.

Demographics of Texas (csv) By race White Black AIAN Asian NHPI AIAN is American Indian or Alaskan Native - NHPI is Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander

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Growth 2000-2005 (total population)






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More than one-third of Texas residents are of Hispanic origin and may be of any racial group. Some are recent arrivals from Mexico, Central America , or South America , while others, known as Tejanos in English, have ancestors who have lived in Texas since before Texan independence, or at least for several generations. Tejanos are the largest ancestral group in southern Duval County . The Hispanic population in Texas is increasing as more illegal immigrants from Latin American countries—primarily from Mexico—look for work in Texas. The state has the second-largest Hispanic population in the United —California has the largest Hispanic population. Numerically, Hispanics dominate south , south-central, and west Texas and are a significant part of the residents in the cities of Dallas and Houston . This influx of immigrants is partially responsible for Texas having a population younger than the union average.

In recent years, the Asian American population in Texas has grown, especially in Houston and in Dallas. People with ancestry from Vietnam , India , China , the Philippines , Korea , and Japan make up the largest Asian American groups in Texas.

In August 2005, it was announced by the United Census that Texas has become the fourth minority-majority state in the nation (after Hawaii , New Mexico , and California ). [11] According to the Texas state Data Center, if current trends continue, Hispanics will become a majority in the state by 2030 .



Big Tex has presided over every Texas State Fair since 1952 Due to immigration in the United history, the culture of Texas has been a melting pot of different cultures around the world. Texas is a diverse and an international place to live, in part because of its many academic institutions and strong biomedical, energy, manufacturing and aerospace industries.

Texas also has an influx of people from the central United moving in to find jobs. Kansas, Oklahoma, Missouri, Nebraska and the Dakotas have experienced a "brain drain" as their university graduates move to other to find employment. There is a common joke among native Texans that a "Yankee" is someone from the North who comes to Texas to visit, and a "damn Yankee" is someone from the North who buys a house and stays.

There are many popular events held in Texas celebrating cultures of Texans. The annual Houston Livestock Show and Rodeo that is held over 20 days from late February through early March. The event begins with trail rides that originate from several points throughout the state, all of which convene at Reliant Park for a barbeque cook-off. The rodeo includes typical rodeo events, as well as concert performances from major artists and carnival rides. The Fort Worth Livestock Show and Rodeo lasts three weeks in late January and early Ferbruary. It has many traditional rodeos, but also a cowboy rodeo, and a Mexican rodeo in recent years that have a large fan base for each. The State Fair of Texas is held in Dallas each year at Fair Park. The University of Texas-OU football game is played at the Cotton Bowl near Fair Park during the State Fair.

Texas has a vibrant live music scene in Austin boasting more music venues per capita than any other U.S. city as the Austin's official slogan is The Live Music Capital of the World . Austin's music revolves around the many nightclubs on 6th Street and an annual film , music , and multimedia festival known as South by Southwest . The longest-running concert music program on American television, Austin City Limits , is videotaped on The University of Texas at Austin campus. Austin City Limits and Waterloo Records run the Austin City Limits Music Festival , an annual music and art festival held at Zilker Park in Austin.


Arts and theatre

Alley Theater in Houston Known for the vibrancy of its visual and performing arts , the Houston Theater District —a 17-block area in the heart of Downtown Houston —is ranked second in the country (behind New York City) in the amount of theatre seats in a concentrated downtown area with 12,948 seats for live performances and 1,480 movie seats. [12]

Houston is also one of only five cities in the United with permanent professional resident companies in all of the major performing arts disciplines (the Houston Grand Opera , the Houston Symphony Orchestra , the Houston Ballet , and The Alley Theatre ). [13] Houston is widely recognized as the nation's third most important city for contemporary visual arts .

Dallas and Fort Worth serve as epicenters of the North Texas region's art scene. The The Modern (formerly the Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth), founded in 1892, is the oldest art museum in Texas. The city is also home to the Kimbell Art Museum , the Amon Carter Museum , the National Cowgirl Museum and Hall of Fame , the Will Rogers Memorial Center , and the Bass Performance Hall downtown. The Arts District of Downtown Dallas is home to several arts venues. Notable venues in the district include the Dallas Museum of Art , the Morton H. Meyerson Symphony Center , The Trammell & Margaret Crow Collection of Asian Art , and the Nasher Sculpture Center .

Also within Dallas is the notable Deep Ellum district which originally became popular during the 1920s and 1930s as the prime jazz and blues hotspot in the Southern United . Artists such as Blind Lemon Jefferson , Robert Johnson , Huddie " Leadbelly " Ledbetter, and Bessie Smith played in original Deep Ellum clubs like The Harlem and The Palace. Today, Deep Ellum is home to hundreds of artists who live in lofts and operate in studios throughout the district alongside bars, pubs, and concert venues. One major art infusion in the area is the city's lax stance on graffiti , thusly several public ways including tunnels, sides of buildings, sidewalks, and streets are covered in murals.



Texas is known for its love of American football and is noted for the intensity with which people follow high school and college football teams—often times dominating over all else for the purposes of socalizing and leisure. School districts in Texas are sometimes criticized for the amount of money spent on their sports programs and facilities. The turf of the football field at Duncanville High School , the second largest high school in the nation, cost hundreds of thousands of dollars. Such facilities and programs can garner a school attention, however. Duncanville's largest basketball court, the Sandra Meadows Memorial Arena, was named in 2004 as one of the top ten places to watch basketball by USA Today . In May of 2005, Sports Illustrated also named the high school's sports program as one of the top 25 in the nation. [14]

Baseball is also very popular in Texas, with Major League Baseball . Minor league baseball is also closely followed.

Other popular sports in Texas include golf (which can be played year-round because of the South's mild climate), basketball , fishing , and auto racing . Lacrosse , originally played by some of the indigenous tribes, is a visible sport and growing. Soccer is a popular participatory sport—especially among children—but as a spectator sport , it does not yet have a large following despite two Texan teams in Major League Soccer . Hockey has been a growing participatory sport in the Dallas/Fort Worth area since the Minnesota North Stars became the Dallas Stars in 1993.

Further information: List of Texas sports teams

Cities and metropolitan areas


Largest cities

Houston San Antonio Dallas Austin Fort Worth El Paso Ranked by population of cities (incorporated municipalities), the six largest cities in Texas are Houston , San Antonio , Dallas , Austin , Fort Worth , and El Paso .

Texas is the only state in the U.S. to have three cities with populations exceeding one million: Houston, San Antonio, and Dallas; which are also among the 10 largest cities of the United . They are larger than any other cities in the Southern United . Austin and Fort Worth are in the top 20 largest U.S. cities. [15] Houston and Dallas are also two of 11 U.S. world-class cities as defined by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group & Network (GaWC). [16] Nearly half of the state's 20 most populous cities are suburbs.

Houston is world-renowned for its energy (particularly oil) and aeronautics industries, and for its ship channel. The city has a vibrant visual and performing arts scene as Houston is one of the five U.S. cities that offer world-class, year-round resident companies in all major performing arts. [17]

Dallas is known globally as a center for telecommunications, computer technology, banking, and transportation. The city is the core of the largest inland metropolitan area in the nation and lacks any direct link to the sea—Dallas's prominence despite this comes from its historical importance as a center for the oil and cotton industries, its position along numerous railroad lines, and its powerful industrial and financial tycoons.

rank U.S.
rank City Population
city limits Land Area
sq. miles Geographic
Area 1





Southeast Texas



San Antonio



South Texas






North Texas






Central Texas



Fort Worth



North Texas



El Paso



West Texas

Further information: List of cities in Texas See also: Population of Texas cities in 2000

Largest metropolitan areas

Texas has 25 metropolitan areas defined by the United Census Bureau . The two largest are ranked among the top 10 metropolitan areas of the United .

As of June 2003 , there is now an additional classification, that of a “Metropolitan Division”. Texas has two metropolitan divisions within the Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington MSA, the largest metro area in the state, and 5th largest in the U.S.. The term metropolitan division is used to refer to a county or group of counties within a metropolitan area that has a population core of at least 2.5 million. While a metropolitan division is a subdivision of a larger metropolitan area, it often functions as a distinct social, economic, and cultural area within the larger region.

The following table lists population figures for the five largest metropolitan areas, in rank of population. Population figures are as of the 2004 U.S. Census estimates.

rank U.S.
rank Metropolitan Area Metropolitan Division Population 1


Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington











Fort Worth–Arlington




Houston–Sugar Land–Baytown





San Antonio





Austin–Round Rock





El Paso



Further information: List of Texas metropolitan areas See also: List of United metropolitan areas


The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) is a governmental agency and its purpose is to "provide safe, effective, and efficient movement of people and goods" throughout the state. Though the public face of the agency is generally associated with maintenance of the state's immense highway system, the agency is also responsible for aviation in the state and overseeing public transportation systems.



State Highway 45 , the first of several toll roads in Central Texas, under construction Texas freeways are heavily traveled and are often under construction to meet the demands of continuing growth. As of 2005, there were 79,535 miles of public highway in Texas (up from 71,000 in 1984). Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) planners have sought ways to reduce rush hour congestion, primarily through High-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes for vans and carpools. The "Texas T," an innovation originally introduced in Houston, is a ramp design that allows vehicles in the HOV lane, which is usually the center lane, to exit directly to transit centers or to enter the freeway directly into the HOV lane without crossing multiple lanes of traffic. Timed freeway entrances, which regulate the addition of cars to the freeway, are also common. Houston and San Antonio have extensive networks of freeway cameras linked to transit control centers to monitor and study traffic.

One characteristic of Texas's freeways are its frontage roads (also known as service roads or feeder roads). Alongside most freeways are two to four lanes in each direction parallel to the freeway permitting easy access to individual city streets. Other have frontage roads, but in Texas they can be found even in the most remote areas. Frontage roads provide access to the freeway from businesses alongside, such as gas stations and retail stores, and vice versa. New landscaping projects and a longstanding ban on new billboards are ways Houston has tried to control the potential side effects of convenience.

Another common characteristic found near Texas overpasses are the Texas U-turns which is a lane allowing cars traveling on one side of a one-way frontage road to U-turn into the opposite frontage road (typically crossing over or under a freeway or expressway) without being stopped by traffic lights or crossing the highway traffic at-grade.

Further information: Texas state highways


Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport The Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport , located nearly equidistant from downtown Dallas and downtown Fort Worth , is the largest airport in the state, the second largest in the United , and fourth largest in the world. In terms of traffic, DFW is the busiest in the state, fourth busiest in the United , and sixth busiest in the world. The airport serves 135 domestic destinations and 37 international, and is the largest and main hub for American Airlines (900 daily departures), the world's largest airline , and also the largest hub for American Eagle .

Texas's second-largest air facility is the George Bush Intercontinental Airport (IAH). The airport is the ninth-busiest in the United for total passengers, and nineteenth-busiest worldwide. Houston is the headquarters of Continental Airlines , and the airport is Continental Airlines' largest hub, with over 750 daily departures (over 250 operated by Continental Airlines). Because of Houston's proximity to American Airlines ' hub at DFW in Dallas - Fort Worth , that airline also maintains a large presence at IAH. A long list of cities within Texas, as well as international destinations are served directly from this airport. With 30 destinations in Mexico , IAH offers service to more Mexican destinations than any other U.S. airports. IAH currently ranks second among U.S. airports with scheduled non-stop domestic and international service (221 destinations), trailing only Atlanta Hartsfield with 250 destinations.

Some other airports that are served by airlines are Dallas Love Field , Houston Hobby Airport , San Antonio International Airport , and El Paso International Airport .


Mass transportation

METRORail in Downtown Houston Dallas Area Rapid Transit (DART) is the Dallas area public transportation authority, providing buses, rail, and HOV lanes. DART began operating the first light rail system in the Southwest United in 1996 and continues to expand its coverage. The DART light rail system remained the only one in Texas until METRORail opened in Houston in 2004.

The Metropolitan Transit Authority of Harris County, Texas (METRO) operates bus , lift bus, and light rail service in Harris County , which includes Houston . METRO also operates bus service to two cities in Fort Bend County . METRO began running light rail service ( METRORail ) in Houston on January 1 , 2004 . Currently the track is rather short. It runs about 8 miles (13 km) from Downtown Houston to the Texas Medical Center and Reliant Park .

The city of Austin will add a commuter rail line called Capitol Metro in 2008.

Although located in the middle of the service areas of DART, the Fort Worth Transportation Authority , and the Trinity Railway Express that connects the two, the city of Arlington remains the largest city in the United that is not served by a public transportation system.


Education and research


Healthcare and scientific research

Texas Medical Center in Houston Houston is the seat of the internationally-renowned Texas Medical Center , which contains the world's largest concentration of research and healthcare institutions.

There are 42 member institutions in the Texas Medical Center—all are non-profit organizations , and are dedicated to the highest standards of patient and preventive care, research , education , and local, national, and international community well-being. These institutions include 13 renowned hospitals and two specialty institutions, two medical schools , four nursing schools , and schools of dentistry , public health, pharmacy , and virtually all health-related careers. It is where one of the first, and still the largest, air emergency services was created—a very successful inter-institutional transplant program was developed—and more heart surgeries are performed there than anywhere else in the world.

Some of the academic and research health institutions are Baylor College of Medicine , The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston , and The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center . The M. D. Anderson Cancer Center is widely considered one of the world's most productive and highly-regarded academic institutions devoted to cancer patient care, research, education and prevention.

Other healthcare and medical research centers in the state are the South Texas Medical Center in San Antonio and the UT Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas .

Texas has two Biosafety Level 4 laboratories: one at The University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB) in Galveston , [18] and the other at the Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research in San Antonio, the first privately owned BSL-4 lab in the United . [19]

In May 2006, Texas initiated the program "code red" in response to the report that Texas , at 25.1 percent, has the largest number of un-insured population of any state. [20]

See also: List of hospitals in Texas

Colleges and universities

University of Texas at Austin Texas A&M University University of Houston Rice University Southern Methodist University The University of Texas System (UT), established by the Texas Constitution in 1876 , consists of nine academic universities and six health institutions. UT System institutions enrolled a total of 182,752 students in fall 2004 making it one of the largest systems of higher education in the nation. In 2004, the University of Texas at Austin , which is the largest institution in the UT System and in the state of Texas, maintained an enrollment of 50,377 students. The University of Texas at Austin was once the largest institution in the United , but it is now one of the top three largest by population and is the nation's 52nd ranked university. [21] Seven doctoral programs at UT Austin rank in the top 10 in the nation and 22 degree programs rank in the top 25, according to a comprehensive study of the quality of graduate schools conducted by the United National Research Council . Four of the seven medical schools of Texas are within the University of Texas System . In 2004, the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas was ranked the 16th highest ranking medical school in the United , with four of Texas's 11 Nobel laureates . [22]

The Texas A&M University System , established by the 1871 Texas legislature, is the second largest state university system of higher learning in Texas. Its flagship institution, Texas A&M University located in College Station, opened in 1876 and is the state's oldest public institution of higher education. Funded research generally exceeds that of all other Texas universities including UT Austin, and Texas A&M ranks among the top ten national universities in research. It is the second largest university in the state of Texas and also one of the top 10 largest schools in the nation. The University of Texas's rivalry with Texas A&M dates back to the late 19th century.

The University of Houston System is the largest urban state system of higher education in the Gulf Coast , which has four universities with three located in Houston. Its flagship institution is the University of Houston (UH), which is the only doctoral degree granting extensive research institution in Houston and is the third largest in the state of Texas with an enrollment of over 36,000. The interdisciplinary research conducted at UH breaks new ground in such vital areas as superconductivity , space commercialization, biomedical engineering , economics , education , petroleum exploration and management . UH is also home to over 40 research centers and institutes. Amongst the most prestigious of the University of Houston's colleges is the University of Houston Law Center . The UH Law Center's Health Law and Policy Institute is ranked number one in the nation while the Intellectual Property Law Program is ranked fifth, according to U.S. News & World Report .

Houston is the location of a well known prestigious private institution, Rice University , which boasts one of the largest financial endowments of any university in the world. The small undergraduate student body is among the nation's most select and one of the highest percentages of National Merit Scholarship winners. Rice University maintains a variety of research facilities and laboratories. Rice is also associated with the Houston Area Research Center, a consortium supported by Rice, the University of Texas at Austin, Texas A&M University, and the University of Houston.

Another liberal arts college in Houston is the University of St. Thomas . Founded by the Basilian Order in 1947 , the University has become one of the premier Catholic universities in the world, renowned for its theology and philosophy departments. Former UST president Archbishop J. Michael Miller currently serves in the Roman Curia as the prefect of Catholic universities throughout the world. The campus is also home to some major historic buildings, such as the Link-Lee Mansion (once the largest house in Texas) and Hughes House (the childhood home of Howard Hughes ).

Houston is also home to Texas Southern University , the first historically black college and university to house a law school; it was also the first state-supported institution in the city of Houston. Over the years, the university's educational facilities and programs expanded, and many of its graduates began to achieve local, regional, and national recognition for their influence in politics, education, business, technology, medicine, and the arts. Its pioneering spirit continues today.

The Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex has the fourth-largest university in the state—the University of North Texas —along with two UT System institutions— The University of Texas at Dallas and The University of Texas at Arlington , as well as private universities such as Southern Methodist University , which has the Metroplex's largest law school, University of Dallas , and Texas Christian University .

San Antonio is home to many colleges and universities, such as The University of Texas at San Antonio , the second-largest institution of the University of Texas System, as well as University of Texas Health Science Center , Trinity University , St. Mary's University, University of the Incarnate Word , and Our Lady of the Lake University .

Other large public universities in Texas include Texas State University-San Marcos (formerly Southwest Texas State University) and Texas Tech University in Lubbock , the only institution in Texas with the university, law school, and medical school—all residing on the same campus.

Baylor University , located in Waco, is the world's largest Baptist university and the oldest continually operating university in Texas [ citation needed ] . The school opened in 1845 and today has an enrollment of 14,000 students. Baylor is well-known at the state level for its academics and is among the most traditional and conservative universities in the state.

Further information: List of colleges and universities in Texas

Primary and secondary education

The entrance to the Lamar High School auditorium in Houston is decorated with a map of the state of Texas. Texas has over 1,000 school districts , ranging in size from the gigantic Houston Independent School District to the 13-student Divide Independent School District in rural south Texas. All but one of the school districts in Texas are separate from any form of municipal government , hence they are called "independent school districts," or "ISD" for short. School districts may (and often do) cross city and county boundaries. School districts have the power to tax their residents and to use eminent domain . The sole exception to this rule is Stafford Municipal School District , which serves all of the city of Stafford .

The public school systems are administered by the Texas Education Agency (TEA). The TEA is divided into twenty Educational Service Center "regions" that serve the local school districts.

Especially in the metropolitan areas, Texas also has numerous private schools of all types (non-sectarian, Catholic, and Protestant). The TEA has no authority over private school operations; private schools may or may not be accredited, and achievement tests are not required for private school graduating seniors. Many private schools will obtain accreditation and perform achievement tests as a means of encouraging future parents that the school is genuinely interested in educational performance.

Homeschooling is popular in Texas—it is generally considered to be among the least restrictive in which to home school. Neither TEA nor the local school district has authority to regulate home school activities; state law only requires that the curriculum 1) must teach "reading, spelling, grammar, mathematics and a study of good citizenship" (the latter interpreted to mean a course in civics ) and 2) must be taught in a bona fide manner. [23] There are no minimum number of days in a year, or hours in a day, that must be met, and achievement tests are not required for home school graduating seniors. The validity of home schooling was challenged in Texas, but a landmark case, Leeper v. Arlington ISD , ruled that home schooling was legal and that the state had little or no authority to regulate the practice.

Further information: List of school districts in Texas




USS Texas (BB-35) , the oldest remaining dreadnought . Four ships of the United Navy and one in the Confederate Navy have borne the name Texas :

CSS Texas

USS Texas (1892)

USS Texas (BB-35)

USS Texas (DLGN/CGN-39)

USS Texas (SSN-775) will join the fleet in 2006



Official designations and symbols [24]

The Texas bluebonnet state flower — the bluebonnet ( Lupinus texensis )

state motto — "Friendship"

state nickname — The Lone Star State (after the single star on several historical flags of Texas and the current Texas flag [25] ; also The Friendship State

state tree — the pecan

state bird — the mockingbird

official state song — Texas Our Texas

state mammals (three) small — armadillo

large — Texas longhorn

flying — Mexican free-tailed bat





Other state designations

state air force — Commemorative Air Force

state dinosaur — the Brachiosaur Sauropod , Pleurocoelus

state dish — chili con carne

state fiber and fabric — cotton

state fish — Guadalupe bass


Texas centennial half dollar commemorative . state folk dance — square dance

state fruit — Texas red grapefruit

state gem — Texas blue topaz

state gemstone cut — The Lone Star Cut [26]

state grass — Sideoats grama ( Bouteloua curtipendula )

state insect — monarch butterfly ( Danaus plexippus )

state molecule; buckyball

musical instrument — guitar

state peppers (two) native — chiltepin

other — jalapeño



state plant — prickly pear cactus

state reptile — Texas horned lizard ( Phrynosoma cornutum ), commonly called the "horny toad"

state shell — lightning whelk ( Busycon perversum pulleyi )

state ship — the Battleship USS Texas (BB-35)

state shrub — crape myrtle ( Lagerstroemia indica )

state native shrub — Texas purple sage ( Leucophyllum frutescens) )

state slogan — "It's like a whole other country"

state snack — tortilla chips and salsa

state sport — rodeo

state stone — petrified palmwood

state tartan — Texas Bluebonnet Tartan

state vegetable — Texas sweet onion


The pledge to the Texas Flag is:

Honor the Texas Flag; I pledge allegiance to thee, Texas, one and indivisible

See also


Texas Portal

Don't Mess with Texas

Gone to Texas

List of Texas-related topics

List of Texans

List of Texas county name etymologies

List of Texas county seat name etymologies

Catastrophic Texas Hurricanes since 1900

Texas travel guide from Wikitravel

Scouting in Texas

Texas Embassy

Texas Irrigation Canals



Further reading

The Handbook of Texas Online - Published by the Texas State Historical Association Several thousand articles by scholars on every aspect of Texas history




Gone to Texas : a History of the Lone Star State , Randolph B. Campbell, Oxford University Press, 2003, hardback, 500 pages.

De Leon, Arnoldo. Mexican Americans in Texas: A Brief History 2nd ed. Harlan Davidson, 1999.

Montejano, David. Anglos and Mexicans in the Making of Texas, 1836–1986 University of Texas Press, 1987.

Wooster, Ralph A. and Robert A. Calvert, eds. Texas Vistas (1987) scholarly articles



Specialized Studies

See History of Texas for further bibliography


Pre 1865

Baum, Dale. The Shattering of Texas Unionism: Politics in the Lone Star State during the Civil War Era Louisiana State University Press, 1998.

Campbell, Randolph B. An Empire for Slavery: The Peculiar Institution in Texas, 1821–1865 Louisiana State University Press, 1989.

Campbell, Randolph B. Sam Houston and the American Southwest HarperCollins, 1993.

Cantrell, Gregg. Stephen F. Austin: Empresario of Texas. Yale University Press, 1999.

Chipman, Donald E. Spanish Texas, 1519–1821 University of Texas Press, 1992.

De Leon, Arnoldo. The Tejano Community, 1836–1900 University of New Mexico Press, 1982.

Poyo, Gerald E., ed. Tejano Journey, 1770–1850 University of Texas Press, 1996.



Since 1865

Barr, Alwyn. Reconstruction to Reform: Texas Politics, 1876–1906 University of Texas Press, 1971.

Brown, Norman D. Hood, Bonnet, and Little Brown Jug: Texas Politics, 1921–1928 Texas A&M University Press, 1984.

Campbell, Randolph B. Grass-Roots Reconstruction in Texas, 1865–1880 Louisiana State University Press, 1997.

Davidson, Chandler. Race and Class in Texas Politics. Princeton University Press, 1990.

Gould, Lewis N. Progressives and Prohibitionists: Texas Democrats in the Wilson Era University of Texas Press, 1973.

Jordan, Terry G. Trails to Texas: Southern Roots of Western Cattle Ranching University of Nebraska Press, 1981.

Lee, James Ward, et al., eds. 1941: Texas Goes to War. University of North Texas Press, 1991.

Olien, Diana Davids, and Roger M. Olien. Oil in Texas: The Gusher Age, 1895–1945 University of Texas Press, 2002.

Perryman, M. Ray. Survive and Conquer, Texas in the '80s: Power—Money—Tragedy … Hope! Dallas: Taylor Publishing Company, 1990.

Pitre, Merline. Through Many Dangers, Toils, and Snares: The Black Leadership of Texas, 1868–1900 Eakin Press, 1985.




^ Texas Almanac . Retrieved on 11 , 2006 . Retrieved on 07, 2006.

^ Weather . Handbook of Texas Online.

^ Monthly Averages for Marfa, TX

^ Monthly Averages for Galveston, TX .


^ Petroleum Profile: Texas . Retrieved on 11 , 2006 . Retrieved on 07, 2006.

^ USA Today, Feb 26, 2006, 6B

^ World Port Rankings 2002, by metric tons and by TEUs . American Association of Port Authorities. Retrieved on 2006 - 07-26 .

^ Air Cargo World's Air Cargo Excellence Survey . Air Cargo World. Retrieved on 2006 - 04-29 .

^ Texas Film Commission . Retrieved on 11 , 2006 . Retrieved on 07, 2006.

^ U.S. Census Bureau News, August 11 , 2005



^ Duncanville atheltics . Retrieved on 11 , 2006 . Retrieved on 07, 2006.

^ List of United cities by population



^ University Selects Bioscrypt for Biosafety Level 4 Lab . Bioscrypt ( October 14 , 2004 ). Retrieved on 2006 - 04-29 .

^ BIOSAFETY LEVEL 4 (BSL-4) LABORATORY . Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research. Retrieved on 2006 - 04-29 .


^ America's Best Colleges 2006: National Universities: Top Schools . Retrieved on 2006 - 04-29 .

^ The Academy of Medicine, Engineering and Science of Texas list of Texas Nobel Laureates

^ Texas Home School Coalition FAQ . Retrieved on 2006 - 04-29 .

^ Texas State Library . Retrieved on 11 , 2006 . Retrieved on 07, 2006.

^ list of State Nicknames

^ State History Guide Texas Symbols, Gemstone Cut: Lone Star Cut




The official State of Texas website

Texas Tourism - Texas: It's like a whole other country

About Texas - Many Texas subject area from the Texas State Library

The Handbook of Texas Online - Published by the Texas State Historical Association

Texas Politics : Texas government resource provided by the University of Texas at Austin

Texas Online - The Texas Government web portal.

Texas Legislature Online

Statistics about Texas

Texas State Maps and Satellite Image - Texas Genealogy Library of Files.

The Portal to Texas History

State Department of Public Safety, Texas Ranger Division

Texas Historical Commission - Official Website

Texas Obituary - A directory of obituary resources arranged by county.

Texas Ranger Hall of Fame and Museum

Texas Register , hosted by the University of North Texas Libraries

The Native Plant Society of Texas

The Native Prairies Association of Texas

Texan Nobel laureates

Texas Newspapers

Open Directory: Texas

Texas State Facts

Texas Economy


State of Texas Capital Austin

Regions Arklatex | Big Bend | Brazos Valley | Central Texas | Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex | Deep East Texas | East Texas | Edwards Plateau | Galveston Bay | Golden Triangle | Greater Houston | North Texas | Northeast Texas | Permian Basin | Piney Woods | Rio Grande Valley | Texas Hill Country | Texas Panhandle | Llano Estacado | Southeast Texas | South Texas | West Texas

Metropolitan areas Abilene | Amarillo | Austin – Round Rock | Beaumont – Port Arthur | Brownsville – Harlingen | Bryan – College Station | Corpus Christi | Dallas – Fort Worth – Arlington | El Paso | Houston – Sugar Land – Baytown | Killeen – Temple | Laredo | Longview – Marshall | Lubbock | McAllen – Edinburg – Mission | Midland – Odessa | San Angelo | San Antonio | Sherman – Denison | Texarkana | Tyler | Victoria | Waco | Wichita Falls

Topics History | Republic of Texas | Counties | Geography | Government | Politics | Economy | Texans