Pharmacy Shelving Wisconsin
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Adams Amery Antigo Appleton Ashland
Baldwin Baraboo Barron Beaver Dam Beloit Berlin Black River Falls Bloomer Brookfield Burlington
Cedarburg Chetek Chilton Chippewa Falls Clintonville Columbus Crandon Crivitz Cudahy
De Forest De Pere Delafield Delavan Dodgeville Durand
Eagle River East Troy Eau Claire Edgerton Elkhorn Ellsworth Elm Grove
Fond Du Lac Fort Atkinson Franklin
Germantown Grafton Green Bay Greendale
Hales Corners Hartford Hartland Hayward Holmen Hudson
Jackson Janesville Jefferson
Kaukauna Kenosha Kewaunee
La Crosse Ladysmith Lake Geneva Lake Mills Lancaster Little Chute Lodi
Madison Manitowoc Marinette Marshfield Mauston Mc Farland Medford Menasha Menomonee Falls Menomonie Mequon Merrill Middleton Milton Milwaukee Minocqua Mondovi Monroe Mosinee Mount Horeb Mukwonago Muskego
Neenah Neillsville New Berlin New London New Richmond
Oak Creek Oconomowoc Oconto Oconto Falls Onalaska Oregon Oshkosh
Pewaukee Phillips Platteville Plover Plymouth Port Washington Portage Poynette Prairie Du Chien Pulaski
Racine Reedsburg Rhinelander Rice Lake Richland Center Ripon River Falls
Saint Croix Falls Sauk City Schofield Shawano Sheboygan Sheboygan Falls Siren Slinger South Milwaukee Sparta Spooner Stevens Point Stoughton Sturgeon Bay Sturtevant Sun Prairie Superior Sussex
Thiensville Tomah Tomahawk Two Rivers
Union Grove
Verona Viroqua
Walworth Waterford Watertown Waukesha Waunakee Waupaca Waupun Wausau Wautoma West Bend Whitewater Wisconsin Dells Wisconsin Rapids Woodruff

Wisconsin (IPA pronunciation: [wɪs.ˈkɑ̩] (help·info)) is a state in the United , located in the Midwest. Its capital is Madison; the governor is Jim Doyle.

The Wisconsin area, bordered by the current-day of Iowa, Minnesota, Michigan and Illinois, as well as Lakes Michigan and Superior, has been part of United territory since the end of the American Revolution; the Wisconsin Territory (which included parts of other current ) was formed on July 3, 1836. Wisconsin ratified its constitution March 13, 1848 and was admitted to the Union on May 29, 1848 as the thirtieth state.

Wisconsin's rural economy was originally based on furs; in the 19th century, emphasis shifted to mining, lumber, farming, dairy, and tourism. Large-scale industrialization began in the late 19th century in the southeast of the state, with the city of Milwaukee as its major center. In recent decades, service industries, especially medicine and education, have become dominant. Wisconsin's landscape, largely shaped by the Wisconsin glaciation of the last Ice Age, makes the state popular for both tourism and many forms of outdoor recreation.

Since its founding, Wisconsin has been ethnically heterogeneous, with New Englanders being among the first to arrive; for many years they dominated the state's industry, finance, politics and education. Large numbers of European immigrants followed them, including Germans, mostly between 1850 and 1900, Scandinavians and smaller groups of Belgians, Swiss, Finns, Irish Catholics and others; in the twentieth century, large numbers of Polish and African-Americans arrived in the state.

Today, 42.6% of the population is of German ancestry, making Wisconsin one of the most German-American in the United , although there are many other major ethnic groups, including one of the larger Hmong populations in the nation. Various ethnic festivals are held throughout Wisconsin to celebrate its heritage.

During the period of the Civil War, Wisconsin was a Republican and pro-Union stronghold. Ethno-religious issues in the late nineteenth century caused a brief split the Republican coalition. Through the first half of the twentieth century, Wisconin's politics were dominated by Robert La Follette and his sons, originally of the Republican Party, but later of their own Progressive Party. Since 1945, the state has maintained a close balance between Republicans and Democrats. Major Republican figures include former Governor Tommy Thompson, while major Democrats include governor Jim Doyle and Senators Herb Kohl and Russ Feingold.[1]

Contents [hide]
1 History
2 Geography
3 Demographics
3.1 Religion
4 Economy
5 Law and government
5.1 Politics
6 Important cities and villages
7 Education
7.1 Colleges and universities
8 Professional sports teams
9 Miscellaneous topics
9.1 Name
10 See also
11 References
12 References


A tall ship at the mouth of the Fox RiverMain article: History of Wisconsin
In 1634, Frenchman Jean Nicolet became Wisconsin's first European explorer, landing at Red Banks, near modern-day Green Bay in search of a passage to the Orient. The French controlled the area until it was ceded to the British in 1763.

After the American Revolutionary War, Wisconsin was part of the U.S. Northwest Territory. It was then governed as part of Indiana Territory, Illinois Territory, and Michigan Territory. Settlement began when the first two public land offices opened in 1834.[2] Wisconsin Territory was organized on July 3, 1836, and it became the 30th state on May 29, 1848.

The state mineral is Galena, otherwise known as lead sulfide, which reflects Wisconsin's early mining history. Many town names such as Mineral Point recall a period in the 1820s, 1830s, and 1840s, when Wisconsin was an important mining state. When Indian treaties opened up southwest Wisconsin to settlement, thousands of miners — many of them immigrants from Cornwall, England — flocked to the "lead rush" in southeastern areas. Wisconsin produced more than half of the nation's lead; Belmont was briefly the state capital. By the 1840s, the easily accessible deposits were worked out, and experienced miners were drawn out of Wisconsin by the California Gold Rush. This period of mining before and during the early years of statehood directly led to the development of state's nickname, the "Badger State". Many miners and their families lived in the mines in which they worked until adequate above-ground shelters were built and were thus compared to badgers.

In the 1830-60 period large numbers of Yankees from New England and New York flocked to Wisconsin. Some became farmers but most settled in towns or cities where they set up businesses, factories, mills, banks, schools, libraries, colleges, and voluntary societies. They created many Congregational, Presbyterian and Methodist churches that still exist. The Yankees created the Republican party in 1854—the first local meeting in the country came in Ripon. They gave strong support to the Civil War effort, as well as to reforms such as abolition, woman suffrage and, especially, prohibition.

Even larger numbers of Germans arrived, so that the state became over one-third German. Most became farmers, especially known for the dairy industry. Others moved to Milwaukee and smaller cities setting up breweries and becoming craftsmen, machinists and skilled workers who were in high demand as the state industrialized. The Germans were split along religious lines. Most Germans were Catholic or Lutheran, with some Lutherans forming the Wisconsin Synod and others joining the Missouri Synod. The Catholics and Lutherans created their own network of parochial schools, through grade 8. Smaller numbers of Germans were Methodists, Jews, or anticlerical liberals (especially intellectual refugees). Politically they tended toward the Democratic party, but 30-40% voted Republican. Whenever the Republicans seemed to support prohibition they shifted somewhat toward the Democrats. When nativist Republicans led by governor William Hoard passed the Bennett Law in 1889 that would shut down German language schools, both Catholic and Lutheran, they revolted and helped elect the Democrats in 1890. In World War I, German culture came under heavy attack in Wisconsin. Senator LaFollette became their protector and Germans strongly supported his wing of the Republican party after that.

Scandinavians comprised the third largest ethnic block, with Norwegians, Danes, Swedes and Finns becoming farmers and lumberjacks in the western and northern districts. A large Danish settlement in Racine gave the only large urban presence. The great majority were Lutheran, of various synods. The Scandinavians supported prohibition and voted Republican; in the early 20th century the were the backbone of the LaFollette movement. Irish Catholics came to Milwaukee and Madison and smaller cities as railroad workers. They quickly became prominent in local government and in the Democratic party. They wrestled with the German Catholics for control of the Catholic church in the state.

The state is bordered by the Montreal River; Lake Superior and Michigan to the north; by Lake Michigan to the east; by Illinois to the south; and by Iowa and Minnesota to the west. Part of the state's boundaries includes the Mississippi River and St. Croix River in the west, and the Menominee River in the northeast.

Wisconsin is home to many bluffs on the Mississippi River, near La Crosse.With its location between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River, Wisconsin is home to a wide variety of geographical features. The state is divided into five distinct regions. In the north, the Lake Superior Lowland occupies a belt of land along Lake Superior. Just to the south, the Northern Highland includes the state's highest point, Timms Hill, as well as massive forests and thousands of small glacial lakes. In the middle of the state, the Central Plain possesses some unique sandstone formations like the Dells of the Wisconsin River in addition to rich farmland. The Eastern Ridges and Lowlands region in the southeast is home to many of Wisconsin's largest cities. In the southwest, the Western Upland is a rugged landscape with a mix of forest and farmland.

The varied landscape of Wisconsin makes the state a vacation destination popular for outdoor recreation. Winter events include skiing, ice fishing and snowmobile derbies. Wisconsin has many lakes of varied size; in fact Wisconsin contains 11,188 square miles (28,977 km²) of water, more than all but three other (Alaska, Michigan & Florida). The distinctive Door Peninsula, which extends off of the eastern coast of the state, contains one of the state's most beautiful tourist destinations, Door County. The area draws thousands of visitors yearly to its quaint villages, seasonal cherry picking, and ever-popular fish boils.

Areas under the management of the National Park Service include the following:

Apostle Islands National Lakeshore along Lake Superior
Ice Age National Scenic Trail
North Country National Scenic Trail
Saint Croix National Scenic Riverway


Wisconsin Population Density MapThe state has always been ethnically heterogeneous. Large numbers of Germans arrived between 1850 and 1900, centering in Milwaukee, but also settling in many small cities and farm areas in the southeast. Scandinavians settled in lumbering and farming areas in the northwest. Small colonies of Belgians, Swiss, Finns and other groups came to the state. Irish Catholics mostly came to the cities. After 1900, Polish immigrants came to Milwaukee, followed by African Americans from 1940 on.

Historical populations
year Population


1820 1,444
1830 3,635
1840 30,945
1850 305,391
1860 775,881
1870 1,054,670
1880 1,315,497
1890 1,693,330
1900 2,069,042
1910 2,333,860
1920 2,632,067
1930 2,939,006
1940 3,137,587
1950 3,434,575
1960 3,951,777
1970 4,417,731
1980 4,705,767
1990 4,891,769
2000 5,363,675
According to the U.S. Census Bureau, as of 2005, Wisconsin has an estimated population of 5,536,201, which is an increase of 32,668, or 0.6%, from the prior year and an increase of 172,486, or 3.2%, since the year 2000. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 119,347 people (that is 361,534 births minus 242,187 deaths) and an increase from net migration of 60,701 people into the state. Immigration from outside the United resulted in a net increase of 46,106 people, and migration within the country produced a net increase of 14,595 people. The top 5 with a net increase of migration into Wisconsin are 1) Illinois, 2) California, 3) Indiana 4) New York and 5) Pennsylvania.

As of 2004, there are 229,800 foreign-born residents in the state (4.2% of the state population), and an estimated 41,000 undocumented workers living in the state, accounting for 18% of the foreign-born population.[citation needed]

Demographics of Wisconsin (csv)
By race White Black AIAN Asian NHPI
AIAN is American Indian or Alaskan Native - NHPI is Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander
2000 (total population) 91.52% 6.15% 1.30% 1.92% 0.08%
2000 (hispanic only) 3.35% 0.17% 0.11% 0.03% 0.01%
2005 (total population) 91.00% 6.48% 1.30% 2.21% 0.09%
2005 (hispanic only) 4.17% 0.20% 0.12% 0.04% 0.01%
Growth 2000-2005 (total population) 2.64% 8.89% 3.13% 18.59% 6.85%
Growth 2000-2005 (non-hispanic only) 1.65% 8.53% 2.43% 18.63% 6.18%
Growth 2000-2005 (hispanic only) 28.67% 21.23% 10.54% 16.75% 10.87%

The five largest ancestry groups in Wisconsin are: German (42.6%), Irish (10.9%), Polish (9.3%), Norwegian (8.5%), English (6.5%)

Wisconsin is widely regarded as the most "German-American" state in the Union (although North Dakota, with 43.9% German ancestry, can also make this claim). People of Scandinavian descent, especially Norwegians, are heavily concentrated in some western parts of the state. Wisconsin has the highest percentage of residents of Polish ancestry of any state. Menominee county is the only county in the eastern United with an American Indian majority.

86% of Wisconsin's black population lives in one of five cities: Milwaukee, Racine, Madison, Kenosha and Beloit while Milwaukee itself is home to nearly three-fourths of the state's blacks. In fact, Milwaukee ranks in the top 10 major U.S. cities with the highest humber of blacks per capita. In the Great Lakes region, only Detroit and Cleveland have a higher percentage of blacks.

33% of Wisconsin's Asian population is Hmong, with significant communities in Milwaukee, Wausau, Green Bay, Sheboygan, Appleton, La Crosse, Stevens Point, Madison, and Eau Claire.

6.4% of Wisconsin's population was reported as under 5, 25.5% under 18, and 13.1% were 65 or older. Females made up approximately 50.6% of the population.

The largest denominations are Roman Catholic, Missouri Synod, Wisconsin Synod and ELCA Lutherans. The religious affiliations of the people of Wisconsin are shown in the list below:

Christian – 85%
Protestant – 55%
Lutheran – 23%
Methodist – 7%
Baptist – 6%
Presbyterian – 2%
United Church of Christ – 2%
Other Protestant or general Protestant – 15%
Roman Catholic – 29%
Other Christian – 1%
Other Religions – 1%
Non-Religious – 14%


City of MilwaukeeAccording to the 2004 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis report, Wisconsin’s gross state product was $211.7 billion. The per capita personal income was $32,157 in 2004.

The economy of Wisconsin is driven by agriculture, healthcare and manufacturing. Although manufacturing accounts for a far greater part of the state's income than farming, Wisconsin is usually recognized primarily as a farming state. Wisconsin produces more dairy products than any other state in the United except California, and it leads the nation in cheese production. Although California has overtaken Wisconsin in the production of milk and butter, Wisconsin still produces more milk per capita than any other state in the Union. In addition to dairying, Wisconsin ranks first in the production of corn for silage, cranberries, ginseng, and snap beans for processing. Wisconsin is also a leading producer of oats, potatoes, carrots, tart cherries, maple syrup, and sweet corn for processing.

Badger State
State Animal: Badger
State Domesticated
Animal: Dairy Cow
State Wild Animal: White-tailed Deer
State Beverage: Milk
State Bird: Robin
State Capital: Madison
State Dog: Spaniel
State Fish: Muskellunge
State Flower: Wood Violet
State Fossil: Trilobite
State Grain: Corn
State Insect: Honeybee
State Motto: Forward
State Song: "On, Wisconsin!"
State Tree: Sugar Maple
State Mineral: Galena
(Lead sulfide)
State Rock: Red Granite
State Soil: Antigo Silt Loam
State Dance: Polka
State Symbol of
Peace: Mourning Dove
Given Wisconsin's strong agricultural tradition, it is not surprising that a large part of the state's manufacturing sector deals with food processing. Some well known food brands produced in Wisconsin include Oscar Mayer, Tombstone and Jack's frozen pizza, and Johnsonville Bratwursts. Kraft Foods alone employs over five thousand people in the state. Milwaukee is a major producer of beer and the home of Miller Brewing Company's world headquarters, the nation's second largest brewer.

In addition to food processing, Wisconsin is home to several transportation equipment and machinery manufacturers. Major Wisconsin companies in these categories include the Kohler Company, Rockwell Automation, Johnson Controls, Briggs & Stratton, Miller Electric, Milwaukee Electric Tool Company, Oshkosh Truck, and Harley-Davidson. Wisconsin also ranks first nationwide in the production of paper products; the lower Fox River from Lake Winnebago to the Bay of Green Bay has twenty-four paper mills along its 39-mile (63 km) stretch. The largest paper companies with operations in Wisconsin are Kimberly-Clark and Georgia-Pacific, both of which rank among the state's top ten employers.

Healthcare is a growing sector of the economy with key players such as GE Healthcare, Epic Systems, and Tomotherapy.

Tourism is also a major industry in Wisconsin. Tourism destinations such as the House on the Rock near Spring Green, Circus World Museum in Baraboo, and the collection of attractions around Wisconsin Dells each draw thousands of visitors every year, and festivals such as Summerfest and the EAA Oshkosh Airshow always attract large crowds.

Wisconsin collects personal income tax based on 4 income level brackets, which range from 4.6 percent to 6.75 percent. The state sales tax of 5 percent. Fifty-eight counties have an additional sales tax of 0.5 percent. Retailers who make sales subject to applicable county taxes must collect 5.5 percent sales tax on their retail sales. Sales of motor vehicles, boats, snowmobiles, mobile homes 45 feet (13.7 m) or less in length, trailers, semi-trailers, all-terrain vehicles, and aircraft are subject to the county use tax rather than county sales tax.

The most common property tax assessed on Wisconsin residents is the real property tax, or their residential property tax. Wisconsin does not impose a property tax on vehicles but does levy an annual registration fee. Property taxes are the most important tax revenue source for Wisconsin's local governments, as well as major methods of funding school districts, vocational technical colleges, special purpose districts and tax incremental finance districts. Equalized values are based on the full market value of all taxable property in the state, except for agricultural land. In order to provide property tax relief for farmers, the value of agricultural land is determined by its value for agriculture uses, rather than for its possible development value. Equalized values are used to distribute state aid payments to counties, municipalities, and technical colleges. Assessments prepared by local assessors are used to distribute the property tax burden within individual municipalities.

Wisconsin does not assess a tax on intangible personal property. Wisconsin does not collect inheritance taxes. Wisconsin's estate tax is decoupled from the federal estate tax laws; therefore the state imposes its own estate tax.

Law and government

The Wisconsin State Capitol at nightThe capital is Madison and the largest city is Milwaukee.

State Executive Officers

Governor: Jim Doyle
Lieutenant Governor: Barbara Lawton
Attorney General: Peg Lautenschlager
Secretary of State: Doug LaFollette
Treasurer: Jack Voight
See also:

Wisconsin Constitution
Governors of Wisconsin
Wisconsin State Legislature
Wisconsin State Senate
Wisconsin State Assembly
Wisconsin Supreme Court
U.S. Congressional Delegations from Wisconsin
List of U.S. Senators from Wisconsin

Much of the state's political history involved coalitions among different ethnic groups. The most famous controversy dealt with foreign language teaching in schools. This was fought out in the Bennett Law campaign of 1890, when the Germans switched to the Democratic Party, who won a major victory. Wisconsin's political history encompasses, on the one hand, Fighting Bob La Follette and the Progressive movement; and on the other, Joe McCarthy, the controversial anti-Communist censured by the Senate during the 1950s. The first Socialist mayor of a large city in the United was Emil Seidel, elected mayor of Milwaukee in 1910; another Socialist, Daniel Hoan, was mayor of Milwaukee from 1916 to 1940.

Wisconsin has a strong progressive tradition dating to the governorship of Robert M. La Follette, Sr. in the early 1900s and his state Progressive Party. However the conservatives have also been strong, as the state has been polarized between left and right for over a century. In the early 20th century the Socialist party had a base in Milwaukee; it faded out in the late 1950s, largely due to racial tensions.[3] William Proxmire, a Democratic Senator (1957-89) dominated the Democratic party for years; he was best known for attacking waste and fraud in federal spending. Since the anti-Vietnam movement in the late 1960s, the university community in Madison has supported a left-wing Democratic party, known for support for gay rights and environmentalism. In 1982 sexual orientation was added by the state legislature as a protected category under existing anti-discrimination laws. Democrat Russ Feingold was the only senator to vote against the Patriot Act in 2001, and Democrat Tammy Baldwin from Madison is the only openly lesbian U.S. Representative. In 2004, Gwen Moore, a Democrat from Milwaukee, became Wisconsin's first African-American U.S. Representative.

The state has supported Democrats in the last five presidential contests. However both the 2000 and 2004 presidential elections were close, with Wisconsin receiving heavy doses of national advertising because it was a "swing" or pivot state. Democrats Al Gore carried the presidential vote in 2000 by only 5,700 votes, John Kerry in 2004 by 14,000 votes. Republican have strongholds in suburban areas, while Democrats dominate some rural areas and inner cities of the Madison and Milwaukee metropolitan urban centers.

Important cities and villages
Cities and villages are incorporated urban areas in Wisconsin. Towns are unincorporated minor civil divisions of counties.

Wisconsin's self-promotion as "America's Dairyland" sometimes leads to a mistaken impression that it is an exclusively rural state. In fact, however, Wisconsin contains cities and towns of all sizes. Milwaukee is slightly larger than Boston and part of a largely developed string of cities that stretches down the western edge of Lake Michigan into greater Chicago and also into northwestern Indiana. Milwaukee is also the 22nd-largest city in the country[1], with around 596,000 inhabitants. This string of cities along the western edge of Lake Michigan is generally considered to be an example of a megalopolis. Madison's triple identity as state capital, university town and working city gives it a cultural richness unusual in a city its size. Madison is also a very fast-growing city, that has around 260,000 people. Medium-size cities dot the state and anchor a network of working farms surrounding them.

Wisconsin, showing rivers and roadsCities in Wisconsin with population of 50,000 or more as of 2000 include:

Milwaukee, population 596,125 (1,709,926 in metropolitan area), largest city
Madison, population 208,054 (588,885 in metropolitan area), state capital
Green Bay, population 102,767 (295,473 in metropolitan area)
Kenosha, population 90,352, part of Chicagoland
Racine, population 81,855, part of the Milwaukee metropolitan area
Appleton, population 70,087 (213,102 in metropolitan area)
Waukesha, population 64,825 part of the Milwaukee metropolitan area
Oshkosh, population 62,916 (159,008 in metropolitan area)
Eau Claire, population 61,704 (148,337 in metropolitan area)
West Allis, population 61,254, part of the Milwaukee metropolitan area
Janesville, population 60,200 (154,794 in metropolitan area)
La Crosse, population 51,818 (128,592 in metropolitan area)
Sheboygan, population 50,792 (113,376 in metropolitan area)
See also: List of municipalities in Wisconsin by population and Political subdivisions of Wisconsin


the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee
Colleges and universities
Public education in Wisconsin includes both the 26-campus University of Wisconsin System, headquartered in Madison, and the 16-campus Wisconsin Technical College System which coordinates with the University of Wisconsin. Notable private colleges and universities include Marquette University, Beloit College,and Lawrence University, among others.

See also: List of colleges and universities in Wisconsin
See also: List of high schools in Wisconsin
See also: List of school districts in Wisconsin

Professional sports teams
Wisconsin is represented by major league teams in the three most popular spectator sports in the United : American football, baseball, and basketball. The Green Bay Packers have been part of the National Football League since the league's second season in 1921 and currently hold the record for the most NFL titles, earning the city of Green Bay the nickname "Titletown".

Club Sport League
Green Bay Packers Football National Football League
Milwaukee Brewers Baseball Major League Baseball
Milwaukee Bucks Basketball National Basketball Association
Milwaukee Admirals Ice hockey American Hockey League
Milwaukee Wave Soccer Major Indoor Soccer League
Green Bay Blizzard Arena football af2
Wisconsin Timber Rattlers Baseball Midwest League
Beloit Snappers Baseball Midwest League
Eau Claire Express Baseball Northwoods League
La Crosse Loggers Baseball Northwoods League
Madison Mallards Baseball Northwoods League
Wisconsin Woodchucks Baseball Northwoods League

Miscellaneous topics
USS Wisconsin was named in honor of this state.

The Milwaukee Art MuseumKnown as "America's Dairyland," Wisconsin is also known for cheese. Citizens of Wisconsin are referred to as Wisconsinites, although a common nickname (sometimes used pejoratively) among non-residents is "Cheeseheads," because of the prevalence and quality of cheesemaking in the state. The state is also known for its alcohol production and consumption, and it is historically home to a large number of breweries and bars per capita. A lesser known, but still significant nickname for Wisconsin is "The Copper State," referring to the copper mines in the northwestern part of the state.

2003-2006: The view of the State Capitol as polluted by developersThe state is home to the Green Bay Packers, the most successful small-market professional sports franchise in the world. With 12 National Football League titles, Green Bay is known as "Titletown". Monday Night Football national broadcasts draw strong ratings during Packers games. The Packers' home stadium, Lambeau Field, is referred to as the "frozen tundra" and is considered by many football enthusiasts to be "hallowed ground." The University of Wisconsin Badgers football program, playing at Camp Randall Stadium, enjoys similar loyalty; both teams are known to sell out their entire schedules far in advance. The waiting list for Packers season tickets has over 50,000 names.

Frank Lloyd Wright's Taliesin in Spring Green, WisconsinThe Milwaukee Art Museum in Milwaukee is known for its unique architecture. The Milwaukee County Zoological Gardens cover over 200 acres (800,000 m²) of land on the far west side of the city. Madison is home to the Vilas Zoo which is free for all visitors, and the Olbrich Gardens conservatory, as well as the hub of cultural activity at the University of Wisconsin. It is also known for Monona Terrace, a convention center that was designed by Taliesin Architect Anthony Puttnam, based loosely on a 1930s design by Frank Lloyd Wright, a world-renowned architect and Wisconsin native who was born in Richland Center. Wright's home and studio in the 20th Century was at Taliesin, south of Spring Green. Decades after Wright's death, Taliesin remains an architectural office and school for his followers.

Wisconsin has sister-state relationships with the Germany's Hessen, Japan's Chiba Prefecture, Mexico's Jalisco, China's Heilongjiang, and Nicaragua.[4]

Although the exact etymology of the name is uncertain, "Wisconsin" is thought to be an English version of a French adaptation of an Indian word. It may come from the Ojibwe word Miskwasiniing, meaning "Red-stone place," which was probably the name given to the Wisconsin River, and was recorded as Ouisconsin by the French and changed to its current form by the English. The modern Ojibwe name, however, is Wiishkoonsing or Wazhashkoonsing, meaning "muskrat-lodge place" or "little muskrat place." Other theories are that the name comes from words meaning "Gathering of the Waters" or "Great Rock." Wisconsin originally was applied to the Wisconsin River, and later to the area as a whole when Wisconsin became a territory.

See also

Wisconsin farmList of people from Wisconsin
List of counties in Wisconsin
List of cities in Wisconsin
List of towns in Wisconsin
List of villages in Wisconsin
List of Wisconsin state parks
List of Wisconsin rivers
List of Wisconsin numbered highways
List of Wisconsin railroads
List of television stations in Wisconsin
Wisconsin Local History Collection
Scouting in Wisconsin
Wisconsin Intercollegiate Athletic Conference

Michael Barone and Richard E. Cohen. The Almanac of American Politics, 2006 (2005)
James K. Conant. Wisconsin Politics And Government: America's Laboratory of Democracy (2006)
Richard Current, Wisconsin: A History (2001)
Larry Gara; A Short History of Wisconsin 1962
Holmes, Fred L. Wisconsin (5 vols., Chicago, 1946), detailed popular history and many biographies
Robert C. Nesbit, Wisconsin: A History (rev. ed. 1989)
Pearce, Neil. The Great Lakes of America (1980)
Quaife, Milo M. Wisconsin, Its History and Its People, 1634-1924 (4 vols., 1924), detailed popular history & biographies
Raney, William Francis. Wisconsin: A Story of Progress (1940),
Arthur H. Robinson and J. B. Culver, ed., The Atlas of Wisconsin (1974)
I. Vogeler, Wisconsin: A Geography (1986);
WPA, Wisconsin: A Guide to the Badger State 1941; detailed guide to every town and city, and cultural history
see additional books at History of Wisconsin

^ Conant ch 1; Barone and Cohen; Pearce
^ Public land offices, and settlement.
^ Kevin D. Smith, "From Socialism to Racism: The Politics of Class and Identity in Postwar Milwaukee." Michigan Historical Review 29#1 (2003) pp 71+
^ Sister

State of Wisconsin
Wisconsin state symbols
Wisconsin Department of Tourism
U.S. Census Bureau
Wisconsin Court System
Wisconsin State Legislature
Wisconsin Historical Society
The State of Wisconsin Collection from the UW Digital Collections Center
Wisconsin's Name: Where It Came From and What It Means
Wisconsin Newspapers
Wisconsin Historical Images, pronunciations of Wisconsin places.
Wiconsin State Facts
State of Wisconsin
Regions: Central Plain | Chicagoland | Chippewa Valley | Coulee Region | Eastern Ridges and Lowlands | Fox Valley | Lake Superior Lowland | Northern Highland | Western Upland

Largest cities Appleton | Beloit | Eau Claire | Fond du Lac | Green Bay | Janesville | Kenosha | La Crosse | Madison | Manitowoc | Milwaukee | Oshkosh | Racine | Sheboygan | Stevens Point | Superior | Waukesha | Wausau | Wauwatosa | West Allis | West Bend

Counties Adams | Ashland | Barron | Bayfield | Brown | Buffalo | Burnett | Calumet | Chippewa | Clark | Columbia | Crawford | Dane | Dodge | Door | Douglas | Dunn | Eau Claire | Florence | Fond du Lac | Forest | Grant | Green | Green Lake | Iowa | Iron | Jackson | Jefferson | Juneau | Kenosha | Kewaunee | La Crosse | Lafayette | Langlade | Lincoln | Manitowoc | Marathon | Marinette | Marquette | Menominee | Milwaukee | Monroe | Oconto | Oneida | Outagamie | Ozaukee | Pepin | Pierce | Polk | Portage | Price | Racine | Richland | Rock | Rusk | Sauk | Sawyer | Shawano | Sheboygan | St. Croix | Taylor | Trempealeau | Vernon | Vilas | Walworth | Washburn | Washington | Waukesha | Waupaca | Waushara | Winnebago | Wood